The herbaceous perennial plant meadow parsnip, either sowing or ordinary (Pastinaca sativa) is a species of the genus Parsnip of the family Celery or Umbrella. The name of this species was formed from the Latin word "pastus", which means "feed, food, nutrition". In the people, such a plant is also called a white root, white carrot or field borscht. This species comes from the Mediterranean. Parsnip has been known to man for a very long time, while the first mentions of him were found in the writings of Dioscorides and Pliny, which date back to the 1st century BC. The seeds of this culture were found in Switzerland during the Neolithic excavations. The ancient Romans, as well as the Greeks, knew such a plant under the name "pastinaka", it was eaten and also used as a medicinal plant, and was also used as feed for livestock. By the middle of the 16th century, this culture has become very popular and available in Europe, like, for example, potatoes at a later time, it is he who will eventually displace ordinary parsnips from the gardens of European countries. This plant first appeared on the territory of Russia in the 17th century, and then it was called "field borscht". Today, in natural conditions, it is found in weedy places among the bushes in Turkey, Western Siberia, the Caucasus and Europe. Parsnips are cultivated in almost all countries.
The height of the rough, grooved, erect stem can vary from 0.3 to 2 meters, it has a faceted sharp-ribbed shape, and there is pubescence on its surface. The upper part of the stem is branched. The composition of unpaired leaf plates includes from 2 to 7 pairs of more or less pubescent leaves of large-toed oval or lobed shape, in the upper part they are sessile, and in the lower part they have short petioles. Ripening of the root crop is observed in the first year of growth. It is thick, fragrant white, has a sweetish taste, the root can be cone-shaped (like a carrot) or rounded (like a turnip). The color of the fruit in the context of dirty yellow. The composition of complex umbrellas includes from 5 to 15 rays, which in turn consist of bisexual, regular small flowers with a yellow corolla. The flowering of parsnips is observed in the second year of growth. The shape of the fruit is round-oval, this flattened droop is painted in a dirty yellow shade. Common parsnip is considered the closest relative of the following garden crops: carrots, parsley, fennel, dill, celery, coriander and lovage.
ALL ABOUT PASTERNAK THAT YOU NEED TO KNOW!
If you decide to grow parsnips on your site, then the first thing you need to do is sow. Of all the root crops, parsnips are the most hardy, and it would seem that its seeds can be sown directly into open soil in early spring, as soon as it warms up a little. However, gardeners prefer to grow this crop through seedlings, since the seeds contain a very large amount of essential oils, which is why they sprout for a rather long time.
Large seeds of this plant require pre-sowing preparation. To begin with, they are immersed in lukewarm water for 24 hours; it must be replaced immediately after it has cooled down. After that, they are treated with a growth stimulating agent, for example: Epin, Heteroauxin or Zircon. The prepared seeds are sown in peat pots, which are filled with a peat-based substrate. You can buy a soil mixture ready-made in a special store or make it yourself, for this you need to combine peat, perlite, garden soil and sand. Remember that the substrate must be loose and light. Before proceeding with sowing, the soil mixture is disinfected, for this it is sieved and spilled with freshly boiled water or steamed in the oven.
Fill the pots with moistened soil mixture, which is tamped so that it is at least 10 mm below the edge of the container, then 2 or 3 seeds are placed on its surface. From above it is necessary to cover them with a thin layer of the same soil mixture. Then the containers must be placed on a pallet, and they are covered with foil on top.
Until the seedlings appear, the crops should be regularly ventilated, for this, the shelter should be raised for 7–10 minutes once a day. It was already mentioned above that the seeds of this culture germinate rather poorly, because they contain a lot of essential oil, in this regard, the first seedlings should appear no earlier than half a month after sowing. When the first shoots appear, the shelter is removed, and the pots are moved to a well-lit place.
The seedlings of this culture need a fairly long daylight hours (about 14 hours) in this regard, if necessary, it should organize additional illumination. Water the seedlings as the top layer of the substrate dries out in containers. Remember that the water should not stagnate in the pots, because this can cause the plants to hurt or even die.
Parsnip - Grow parsnips from seeds
It should be remembered that root crops react extremely negatively to picking, in this regard, it is recommended to sow them in individual containers, and not in common boxes. After the plants have 2 true leaf plates, it is necessary to choose the most powerful of all in the pot, and gently pinch off the rest of the seedlings above the surface of the substrate. It is not recommended to pull out extra seedlings, as this can cause injury to the root system of a strong plant. About 1.5 weeks before transplanting parsnips into open soil, you should start hardening them. For this, the seedlings must be taken out into fresh air every day, while the duration of such a procedure is gradually increased.
It is recommended to plant parsnip seedlings in open soil in mid-May, after the plants are 28 to 30 days old. Most often at this time, returnable spring frosts are already left behind, and the soil is pretty well warmed up. It is necessary to plant seedlings in the Moscow region at about the same time, adjusted for the weather.
For planting seedlings, you need to choose a sunny area, but such a plant can also be grown in a shaded place. It grows best on neutral moist sandy loam, peat or loamy soil. Such a culture does not grow on acidic soil; it can be corrected by liming. Areas where crops such as carrots, parsley, celery, parsnips and other root crops were grown a year earlier are not suitable for planting parsnips, since these plants suffer from the same diseases, and they also have common pests. It is best to grow such a crop in the area where cabbage, potatoes, onions or beets previously grew, especially if fertilizers were introduced into the soil during their cultivation. The fact is that parsnips grow well on the soil that was fertilized in advance, in this regard, it is recommended to prepare a plot for parsnips in advance. This should be done in autumn, the site should be cleared of weeds, and if no organic fertilizers have been applied to the soil in the current season, then rotted manure should be added to the soil (1/2 bucket of fertilizer is taken per 1 square meter). In spring, before planting seedlings in open soil, the site should be re-dug up, its surface is leveled, and then high beds are formed.
Make several holes in the garden, keeping the distance between them from 10 to 12 centimeters, and the width between the rows should be at least 0.4 m.The depth of the planting holes should be made such that the plant can fit freely in them along with the peat pot. In the case when the seedlings were grown in plastic cups, they should be watered very well before planting. Carefully remove the plant along with a lump of earth and transfer it into the planting hole. The planted plants must be watered abundantly.
This crop can be grown using sub-winter sowing. Sowing of seeds is carried out in autumn until the second half of October, for this you should use a site that is best prepared in advance and is recommended in spring. Since the seeds are quite large, they are sown in one hole in 3 pieces, they are buried in the soil by 30–40 mm. The distance between the holes should be from 10 to 12 centimeters, while the width between the rows is about 0.4–0.45 m. The advantage of winter sowing is that seedlings appear very amicably in spring. After the seedlings grow up a little, they will need thinning, while the most powerful plant should be chosen, and the remaining ones should be carefully plucked out.
Growing parsnips in your garden is easy enough. For this plant, it is necessary to water, weed, feed and loosen the soil surface between the rows in a timely manner. The fact that this plant is distinguished by its unpretentiousness makes it easier to care for parsnips.
The first time it will be necessary to loosen the soil surface after the seedlings appear or when the seedlings planted in the open ground are accepted. Subsequently, loosening of the soil is carried out every time after the rain has passed or watering has been carried out.
This plant is moisture-loving, especially it needs water during the formation of root crops. If the parsnip lacks moisture, then the color of its foliage will become lighter, the growth of the bush will be slower, and it may develop an arrow. Also, because of this, the plant's roots can become tough, fibrous and dry, and cracks appear on their surface. If water stagnation is observed in the soil, this can cause the development of a fungal disease.
If parsnips are grown in moist soil, then during the season it will need to be watered abundantly only 4 or 5 times, and then only during a prolonged drought. If in the summer it rains systematically, then this crop will not have to be watered at all. When the bed is watered, it is recommended to weed and loosen its surface.
It should be remembered that in dry and hot weather, the foliage of such a plant emits a rather caustic essential oil that can cause burns. In this regard, try to work with such plants early in the morning or in the evening when the sun goes down.
During the growing season, such a plant will need to be fed 3 or 4 times. For feeding, you need to use exclusively liquid fertilizers, for example: mullein solution (1:10), mineral fertilizers or infusion of wood ash.
When 7-15 days have passed after transplanting the parsnips to the garden, it will need to be fed with nitrogen-containing fertilizer. After 20 days, re-feeding with the same fertilizer is carried out. From mid-July, the bushes begin to feed with fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium. If the soil is nutritious in the area where the parsnip grows, then the bushes can not be fed at all, especially if fertilizers were introduced into the soil earlier.
Parsnips can get sick with the same diseases as other crops belonging to the Umbrella family. For example, it can suffer from septoria, cercospora, wet bacterial rot, black rot (or Alternaria), and white and gray root rot.
On the foliage of specimens affected by septoria, a lot of medium-sized specks appear that do not have clear boundaries, they become darker over time and are colored, eventually, in a brownish-brown color. Sick bushes turn yellow and dry out. This disease develops rapidly in cool weather, if there is high humidity. The infection enters plants through the stomata.
If the parsnip is affected by cercosporosis, then specks appear on the shoots and foliage, reaching 0.6 cm in diameter, of a dirty brown or light yellow color, which have an irregular shape. As the disease progresses, the spots in the center fade, while the border around them darkens. The edge of the affected leaf plates becomes raised and slightly curled. On the surface of the shoots, brownish-red specks of an elongated shape look like depressed ones. Affected bushes are lagging behind in development, and the foliage turns yellow and dries up.
Wet bacterial rot is a widespread disease that develops intensively with high humidity and sudden changes in temperature. Root crops are affected by this disease both in the open field and during storage. The disease begins with the appearance of rot in the tail. Initially, oily-watery specks of a dark color are formed on the bush. Over time, depressions with a fetid rotting mass appear in these areas, it flows out of root crops like mucus, as a result of which the disease spreads to other bushes, and this happens quite rapidly.
Black rot (Alternaria) - the development of this disease mainly occurs during storage. Slightly depressed spots of a dark color appear on the surface of root crops, and in damp weather they form a bloom of dark olive color. The diseased tissue in the section has a coal-black tint.
Sclerotinia (gray rot) and botrytis (white rot) - these diseases differ in the color of the plaque that forms on the surface of root crops. On root crops affected by gray rot, a fluffy bloom of gray color appears, and on those that get sick with white rot, a white bloom is formed in the form of flakes with black sclerotia of the fungus. Such diseases develop most actively when the air humidity is high in warm weather.
In order to prevent fungal diseases, a set of measures must be taken:
However, if, despite all the preventive measures taken, the first signs of rot appear in the store or on the garden bed, all affected specimens must be removed as soon as possible. Healthy ones should be sprayed with a solution of Bordeaux mixture (1%), Topsin-M or Fundazol.
The greatest danger to such a plant is the caraway moth, the striped shield bug, the field bug and aphids.
Caraway moth contributes to the destruction of the testes of this culture. Caterpillars of such a harmful insect are able to penetrate the shoots, roots and foliage of parsnips, they feed on its tissues. After the bushes bloom, the caterpillars envelop the inflorescences with their cobwebs and eat the flowers, pedicels and seeds, and then hide in the shoot again.To get rid of such caterpillars, the bush must be treated with a decoction of tomato tops. For its preparation, 1 bucket of freshly boiled water and 3.5 kilograms of tomato tops are taken, the mixture must be left for a couple of days, after which the broth will be ready. It should be filtered and combined with 40 grams of household soap crushed on a grater.
The striped bush bug feeds on the juice of young buds and ovaries, as a result of which they die.
The field bug is a beetle of grayish-green color, which has a length of about 0.4 cm. In the tissues of the bush, females arrange oviposition. Larvae are selected from the eggs, which suck the plant sap from the tops of the stems and foliage. In those areas where there are punctures, there is death, yellowing and drying of the tissue, and due to the toxic saliva of such an insect, the seeds become sterile. In regions with a warm climate, 3 or 4 generations of such a pest are formed during one season. You can use Actellic or Karbofos to destroy the striped bug and the field bug.
The greatest danger to such a plant is aphid, this pest is the most prolific of all. It sucks out the plant sap, as a result of which the bushes become frail, deformed, and their development stops. In addition, aphids are the main vector of viral diseases that are considered incurable. You can try to destroy aphids with folk remedies, or chemicals are used for this, for example, Biotlin or Antitlin, in this case the same drugs can help as in the fight against aphids, for example, Confidor. For prevention purposes, all weeds must be removed from the site in a timely manner. And when the entire crop is harvested, the site must be cleared of plant residues, as well as deeply digging it.
It is necessary to harvest parsnips in the autumn, after the foliage begins to die off. Roots are removed from the soil with a pitchfork, while trying not to injure them. If necessary, the harvest can be postponed until the onset of winter, the fact is that from the low temperature the roots become much tastier.
It is necessary to work with such a plant, protecting your hands with gloves, since its tops can leave burns on the skin. Root crops for storage are placed in boxes filled with sand, the temperature in the storage should be from 0 to 2 degrees, while the humidity level should be from 80 to 85 percent. It should be noted that when stored in a cellar, the roots become soft, in this regard, in areas with a warm climate, where there is no severe frost in winter, they can not be removed from the soil.
There are not too many species and varieties of parsnips. All types of root crops are divided into long and round. Varieties that belong to the long species need a well-developed soil, and to the round ones they are distinguished by their unpretentiousness.
Also, all varieties are divided according to the ripening period into:
The most popular varieties are:
The Serdechko variety and varieties of foreign selection are also quite popular among gardeners, such as Hollow Crown, Contess, Javelin and Tender and Tru.
Parsnip cultivar KULINAR, description, cultivation experience.
The parsnip root vegetable contains carotene, ascorbic acid, carbohydrates, essential oil, mineral salts, B vitamins (B1, B2, B3). The carbohydrates included in their composition are easily digestible, and they also contain a fairly large amount of potassium, and it improves blood circulation and digestion, and also has a positive effect on the state of the nervous system. The complex of macro- and microelements and vitamins contained in this plant is very similar in composition to that of spinach. The foliage contains a large amount of essential oils, and the root vegetable contains fructose and sucrose that are harmless to diabetics; parsnips contain 3 times more of them than in carrots.
This plant is unique in that it contains substances that can relieve spasms. If you eat a root vegetable chopped on a grater in a timely manner and correctly, you can remove renal or hepatic colic. This plant also has a tonic, expectorant and analgesic effect. Since ancient times, it has been used as a diuretic for edema, and also as a means of improving appetite, strengthening the walls of capillary vessels and stimulating sexual activity. At the moment, this plant is used in therapy, as well as for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Scientists have conducted many experiments that have made it possible to find out that the furocoumarins found in parsnips increase the sensitivity of the skin to ultraviolet rays. This property has been used to repigment discolored areas of the epidermis in people with vitiligo.
Root crops are used for the manufacture of drugs "Beroxan" and "Eupiglin", which are used during the treatment of alopecia areata and vitiligo. And they also extract the furocoumarin of pastinacin, which is a vasodilator, it is used to prevent angina attacks in cardiac neurosis and coronary insufficiency, as well as in other spastic phenomena.
Previously, to improve mood and appetite, it was recommended to take a root vegetable tincture of this plant on moonshine. At the same time, the infusion of root crops on water was used to restore strength in seriously ill patients. And also such infusions are distinguished by a sedative effect, in this regard, they are recommended for neuroses and insomnia.
Parsnip Useful properties
Parsnip and preparations made on its basis cannot be used by people with individual intolerance, and for patients with photodermatosis - inflammation of the epidermis due to high sensitivity to sunlight. The fact is that the substances contained in such a root vegetable contribute to the enhancement of this sensitivity. Parsnips are also not recommended for small children and the elderly.
Crocosmia (Latin Crocosmia) also known as the Japanese gladiolus montbrecia belongs to the Iridaceae family. In appearance, the plant resembles a gladioli to many. In its natural environment, perennial montbrecia is found in Africa, in gardens and parks - it is grown in Europe. In countries of origin, crocosmia is pollinated by hummingbirds, in our climate - bees, bumblebees play a similar role. The plant growing wildly is accustomed to the warm climate, therefore it is frost-resistant.
In addition to its interesting appearance - numerous flowers on the stem of intense color, crocosmia has a characteristic scent reminiscent of saffron. The botanical name Crocosmia was created from a combination of Greek words:
Variety Lucifer and garden crocosmia are characterized by tough shoots that rise above the leaves. Shoot size depends on the variety, usually reaches 60-80 cm in height, some plants in good growing conditions can exceed 100 cm, low varieties grow up to 50-60 cm.
Crocosmia leaves are juicy, green, sword-shaped, reach a length of 80 cm, the stem is hard. Leaves and flowers make up a very decorative combination.
The roots of the montbrecia are a vertical chain of bulbs. Babies grow above the old tuber, while the maternal tuber grows deeper due to well-developed roots. Thus, during the period of plant growth, a “rose” of bulbs is formed underground - the old ones are located below, the young ones above. The tubers or bulbs of the montbrecia are husked. If the conditions are right, large, well-developed tubers can be produced in a season.
The most important decorative element of the montbrecia is flowers. The inflorescence consists of several small flowers, densely located on the stem. Individual flowers have different sizes, but they are all collected in one inflorescence, blooming from bottom to top: at the top are young specimens, at the bottom - those that were set earlier.
Flowering period of montbrecia: depending on the variety, flowering begins in July and continues until frost.
After flowering, the montbrecia produces seeds. The color of the inflorescence varies depending on the variety. The flowers are intensely red or yellow-orange.
Frost resistance of montbrecia depends on the variety. Not all varieties tolerate frost well. An exception is the Lucifer variety - it can withstand frosts down to -20-23 ° C.
Here are the most famous varieties of Platycodon, differing mainly in color and height:
The agricultural technology of the swede is simple. But in order to get a high-quality harvest, you should heed the advice of experienced gardeners.
An experienced gardener will tell you how to grow rutabagas in the following video:
The cultivation of rutabagas is not associated with any difficulties. Compliance with the rules of agricultural technology, timely watering and fertilization is the key to a high-quality harvest.