This plant will not leave indifferent palm lovers who do not have a lot of space at home or have no winter garden. Rapis is a palm tree, distinguished by its not picky and very simple care, which can be handled not only by a florist, but also by a child.
This plant has two main varieties - tall and short. More recently, for home floriculture, they preferred mainly low Rapis, since it grows only up to one and a half meters in height, which is especially important for small apartments and houses where it is almost impossible to completely grow, for example, chamedorea, date palm or hovea. Over time, the number of entertainment and shopping centers, offices, shops and other similar establishments began to increase at a high rate, so Rapis high, reaching three meters in height, began to be more often used there. He received such distribution, again, thanks to its undemanding and ease of care.
Rapis loves a sufficient amount of light and may even be exposed to direct sunlight for a short time, but do not overdo it. At the same time, he feels good in partial shade. For a uniform and beautiful crown, the plant needs to be rotated periodically. It should always be remembered that when moving a rape from partial shade to a brighter place, it is important to allow it to adapt a little and do it gradually. This should be taken into account, and only after buying a plant - let it stand a little in partial shade, and add light gradually.
The optimum temperature for the plant to feel comfortable is at the level of 20-22 degrees. That is, the normal room temperature. If possible, in the summertime, the rape should be taken outside. If this is not possible or the plant is in the office, then it is advisable to regularly ventilate the room, which is natural in the summer. In winter, it is recommended to give the rapese a rest at a lower temperature - at the level of 10-16 degrees. It should be noted that this is not necessary at all.
Watering should be the most important consideration when caring for a rapeseed plant. This plant is afraid not only of too wet soil, but also of overdrying it. In summer, it is natural to water the plant abundantly, and in winter, especially at low temperatures, the amount of watering decreases. At all times, the ground must remain moist at all times. Rape should be watered only with settled warm water.
It is believed that the humidity of the air does not affect the plant in any way. But all the same, it is better to spray the rapese periodically, which is especially important in the summer or with increased dry air, which is often the case in offices. It should be noted that with excessively dry air, the tips of the leaves dry out in the plant. If the rapese is in a cool room, then spraying is not required.
It is necessary to feed rapeseed in spring and summer. Fertilizer can be chosen at will, but in any case, mineral complex fertilizer will do. The frequency of feeding depends on this choice, but usually it is 1 or 2 times a month.
The most important thing here is that this plant does not need a standard transplant. In an adult rapeseed, you can only replace the top layer of the earth, and a young one growing, if necessary, transplant into a larger pot, and this can only be done by ordinary transshipment. When choosing a pot, it is taken into account that the root system of the plant is located superficially, so it should be shallow and wide. This will prevent the soil not reclaimed by the roots from souring. For top layer replacement or transhipment, a common palm tree mix is used, which can always be found in a wide range of stores. It is possible to independently make the following soil composition:
Adding a small amount of hydrogel balls or chopped sphagnum moss to the soil will save you from overdrying the soil and frequent watering.
It is imperative to make good drainage!
Most often, rapese is propagated by dividing rhizomes. It is best to carry out these actions when transplanting a plant. Seeds are also used for reproduction, but this process takes quite a long time. You need to wait until the seeds germinate, and this is an average of 2-3 months.
First of all, the spider mite can damage the rapese. If the room has a low temperature and normal humidity, then the likelihood of his attack decreases many times. Another pest is the scale insect. If there are signs of its occurrence, you need to urgently take action.
Rapis goes well in compositions with other types of decorative deciduous plants. Its luxurious crown looks very good next to sanselvieria, which has straight leaves. It is optimal to put tall rapeseed separately or surrounded by low-growing plants with variegated leaves. This can be, for example, calathea, poinsettia, arrowroot, alocasia and others.
If the rapeseed is well cared for, then you can admire its lovely flowers. However, flowering is a rather rare event.
A large, up to 20 m tall palm tree from the warm and rain forests of Australia. Requires a sunny location, especially in winter, but can tolerate little shade for extended periods. The optimal temperature range is + 10-16 degrees, provided there is good ventilation. Suitable for cultivation is a mixture of clay-sod land and high-moor peat with a neutral reaction (pH 6-7). In spring and summer, the need for watering and spraying is significant, the soil cannot be brought to dryness, in winter watering is moderate. During the period of active growth, fertilizing with a complex mineral fertilizer is necessary 2-3 times a month. Young plants are transplanted annually, adults - every few years as needed.
This graceful pinnate palm is suitable for use in interiors at a young age.
• in the rooms
• in winter gardens, greenhouses
• in general premises (lobbies, offices, etc.)
once every few years in large pots or floor planters or flowerpots
turf land: leafy land: sand (3: 3: 1)
• due to excessive dryness of the air or excessive watering, browning of the tips of the leaves is possible, but more often it is associated with watering with hard water
• considered resistant to spider mites, but highly susceptible to mealybugs
from October to February, but rest is not required
• dividing the bush
• separation of lateral suckers with roots from the mother plant
• does not propagate by seeds (dioecious plant, in culture - only male plants)
• optimum air humidity - not less than 60%, although it also tolerates dry air
• tolerates some drying of the soil, but does not tolerate blocking
dark green, glossy, fan-shaped, deeply dissected (almost to the base) into 7-12 segments, with "shaggy" petioles
does not bloom in indoor conditions
multi-stemmed palm with slender reed-like stems covered with a black-brown mesh of dead leaf sheaths that fall off over time
Young specimens are delivered in a peat substrate soaked in a nutrient solution in nurseries. At home, when irrigated with settled water, the peat substrate quickly loses its fertility and leaches out. Therefore, the grower needs to transplant the acquired plants into a fresh substrate.
Transplanting (as well as transshipment) of palms should be carried out in the spring, as palms cannot tolerate transplanting during the period when they are at rest. Plants are carefully removed from the pots in which the palms were at the time of purchase, and placed in a large container with warm water - for example, in a basin or bucket. Adding potassium permanganate (0.5 g per 10 l) to the water will not be superfluous for soaking.
When the peat substrate swells and softens, it is carefully separated without damaging the roots. A new substrate is prepared from a mixture of equal parts of sand, garden soil (gray soil) and black soil (or compost). If you purchased a specialized peat-based palm substrate, then it should be mixed with an equal volume of sand and garden soil, and for deoxidation add chalk, or slaked lime, or potassium sulfate (all in a ratio of 20 g / l), or 1 glass ash per 10 liters of substrate. After that, the substrate is disinfected.
The pot for the plant is selected according to the volume of the root ball, the capacity must necessarily have a large drainage hole. Large expanded clay with chipped edges (collapsed) is laid on the bottom of the pot with a layer of at least 5 cm - inside its granules aluminum salts are contained, which have a detrimental effect on pathogenic fungal microflora. Small expanded clay or large unbroken granules should not be used as drainage, since they absorb calcium salts and promote alkalization of the substrate.
Rape is one of the most beautiful and hardy palms, widely spread in culture in the East, especially in China and Japan, but in our country they have so far been neglected. Perhaps this is due to the relatively high cost of these plants, which is explained by their slow growth - it takes many years to grow a large plant.
They are short, multi-stemmed plants with slender, bamboo-like stems and unusual strongly dissected fan leaves. All types of rapes, without exception, deserve attention (their detailed description is given on the Rapis page), but many of them are rare in the culture, although they differ little from each other in care. We sell high rapeseed, less often low rapeseed, which come to flower shops through Dutch auctions.
In terms of unpretentiousness, rapeseas are not inferior to such popular palms as hovei and hamedorei. The plasticity of these palms is due to natural adaptations to the subtropical climate with sharp fluctuations in conditions, large temperature drops (up to zero and below), and possible short-term droughts. Their compact and slow growth, resistance to diseases and pests make them very suitable plants for decorating residential and office interiors.
Illumination. Rapis is shade-tolerant, prefers to grow in bright diffused light, although it feels good in a shady place, it can stand in deep shade for some time without losing its decorative effect. Adult specimens are well suited for landscaping dimly lit rooms, but like any living plants, they cannot do without light at all, so from time to time it is necessary to change their location to a more illuminated one in order to allow the plants to recover.
Rapeseed can grow in the open sun, but at the same time the leaves of many species lose their rich green color, acquiring a yellowish tint.
Illumination of about 50% is considered optimal for growing rapeseed. They grow well near western and eastern windows, and can grow on the north side. In rooms with a southern orientation, it is better to place the plant in the back of the room. For uniform crown growth, it is advisable to regularly rotate the plant relative to the light source.
Watering uniform and moderate all year round. In adulthood, rapeseed can survive a short drying out, but from systematic waterlogging of the soil, it can be affected by root rot. To avoid diseases, the plant should be watered only when the soil dries out from above by a few centimeters. When watering, water should wet the entire lump, but not stagnate in the pot, for which the soil must be well drained throughout. Particular attention should be paid to watering if the plant is in direct sun: the soil should not be allowed to dry out here. In winter, with a lack of light, if there is a possibility of a cool content, watering should be reduced. It is advisable to use soft water, since the accumulation of calcium salts in the soil over time leads to browning of the tips of the leaves.
Temperature. Rapeseed is quite cold-resistant, can withstand a short-term drop in temperature to -5 o C. At the same time, the stems and leaves are partially affected, but the plant is restored. Rapis does not tolerate heat well. At high temperatures, it is necessary to water the plant on time, provide it with protection from direct sun and, if possible, increase the humidity of the air and ensure good ventilation of the room.
Rapis feels comfortable at normal room temperature. In winter, with a lack of light, it is advisable to provide it with a cool content at + 10 + 16 ° C (a decrease to + 5 + 10 ° C is possible), accompanying it with a reduction in watering.
Air humidity... Rape is quite tolerant of dry indoor air, but with the heating devices turned on, it is advisable to spray the leaves 2 times a day. If the content is cool (below +18 ° C), spraying should be canceled. On hot days, on the contrary, increase the humidity of the air, often spray the leaves, and arrange sprinkling for the plant.
Soil and transplant... Rape is content with many types of soil, provided they are well drained, but prefers light, slightly acidic or neutral. Ready-made soil for palm trees with the addition of perlite is suitable for growing. For planting, take wide pots or bowls, giving room for the growth of basal shoots. Young specimens are transplanted every year by careful handling. Mature plants do not need frequent transplants. When replacing the top layer of soil with a fresh one, be careful not to damage the young shoots and surface roots of the plant.
Top dressing. Rapeseed does not require enhanced nutrition, they are fed from spring to autumn with complex fertilizers for palms.
Reproduction. During transplantation, part of the lateral suckers with roots can be separated. This is the only way to propagate varietal plants. Rapeseed does not propagate by cuttings. Seed reproduction is also possible, the seeds germinate in 2-3 months.
The slow growth of seedlings and detached daughter plants explains the rather high cost of mature plants. Rapis, propagating by layering, has an unlimited lifespan, with good care it can be grown for many years, passing from generation to generation.
Pests and diseases. Rapeseed is considered to be a plant resistant to pests and diseases. Even with a spider mite, it is extremely rare. However, pests such as mealybugs and scale insects can be found on it. When choosing a plant, carefully examine the leaf blades, leaf stalks, their axils, stem, offspring. If you find on them plaques that look like droplets of wax (this is a scale) or white lumps that resemble cotton balls (mealybug), then refrain from buying. Having found these pests on an already purchased plant, try to remove all visible insects by hand and treat with a systemic insecticide (Aktara).
With regular waterlogging, rapeseed can be affected by root rot. Stagnation of water in the root zone deprives them of air access, which creates good conditions for the development of pathogenic fungi. In this case, the leaves are covered with large brown spots, the plant loses its turgor and withers. In case of severe damage, the roots should be washed from the soil, the decayed parts should be removed, the palm tree should be transplanted into fresh, well-drained soil and measures should be taken to reanimate the plant (greenhouse with high air humidity, treatment with Zircon). At the initial stages of the disease, it is enough just to normalize watering, to allow the roots to breathe - in such conditions, the disease will stop developing and the roots will gradually recover.
• small palms common in China and Japan
• in room culture - mainly tall rapese (Rhapis excelsa), less often - rapese is low (Rhapis humilis)
Rapis (Rhapis) - a small genus in the family Arecaceae, or Palm (Arecaceae, or Palmae). Despite the fact that rapeseed is one of the most famous, long and widely grown ornamental palms, the taxonomy of the genus remains not fully established. At the moment, 11 types of rapes are recognized, each of which often has several synonyms, although in different literary sources the number of the genus can vary from 8 to 12. The monophilia of representatives of the genus (the presence of a single common ancestor) has not yet been confirmed, there is reason to consider it close to childbirth Guihaya (Guihaia) and Rapidophyllum (Rhapidophyllum), as well as with the genus Maxburretia (Maxburretia).
All types of rapeseed are native to Asia (Cambodia, South, Southeast and Central China, Japan, Laos, Java, Sumatra, Thailand, Vietnam), where they grow in the undergrowth of dry evergreen forests, in regions with temperate or subtropical climate. Some types of rapeseed are not found in the wild and are known only in culture.
The scientific name of the genus comes from the Greek word rhapis, meaning "needle" or "stem", and indicating the slender stems of these palms.
Rapeseed belongs to the so-called reed palms. These are low, up to 4-6 m, bushy, multi-stemmed plants, forming rather dense thickets with the help of underground stolons. Young stems are thin, reed-like, covered with black or brown reticulate fibrous sheaths left over from fallen leaves. Over time, they also fall off, exposing the lower parts of the stem that have become like bamboo, hence the common name for rapis - Bamboo palm. It introduces some confusion, since other palms, for example, hamedorei, are called similarly.
Rape leaves - on thin petioles, small, fan-shaped, dissected into 5-12 or more folded and finely serrated leaves along the edge, often forming an almost vicious circle, or V-shaped. The leaves are so deeply cut that the narrow lobes often seem to be separate and create the illusion of graceful fingers, which gave the rapis another common name - Lady Palm, which equally applies to palms from the closely related genera Rapidophyllum and Guihaya. Rape is also called Fan palm and Papyrus palm - leaf lobes emerging from one point are more reminiscent of fan blades to someone, and to someone - leaves of papyrus cyperus. Unlike many other palms, in which the crown is concentrated at the top, the leaves of the rapis are evenly spaced along the entire trunk. Young plants have from one to several leaves; there are dozens of them in the crown of adult plants.
Most rapeseas are dioecious plants, male and female flowers are formed on different plants, but some species are monoecious. Small, slightly branched inflorescences are laid between the leaves in the upper part of the plant. The flowers are fleshy, with 3 petals. In some species, plants of only one sex were found, for example, in the rapeseed of low (Rhapis humilis) - all plants are male. This does not interfere with reproduction, since it is predominantly vegetative in the rape, with the help of underground shoots. Seed propagation makes it possible to isolate cultivars with special leaves, including variegated ones, from a variety of young plants. The fruits of rapeseed are small, spherical, ellipsoid or ovoid, juicy, usually single-seeded, in some species sitting on short stalks. At home, these palms do not bloom.
Rapeseed can be called the most unpretentious palms for indoor cultivation. In terms of their endurance, they surpass even hovei and hamedorea: they require small doses of fertilizers, are unpretentious to the quality of the soil, they can tolerate low light levels, short drought, short-term temperature drops below zero, in most cases they are resistant to spider mites. They are widely grown as outdoor ornamental plants in countries with warm climates and, due to their compact forms and slow growth rates, as tub and indoor plants in countries with cold winters. Since ancient times, rapeseed plants have been popular in China and Japan, where many variegated and dwarf cultivars were selected. Currently, more than 100 varieties of rapeseed are known.
Rapis high (Rhapis excelsa) not found in the wild, all plants originate from the cultivated plantations of China. It is assumed that the species originates from China or Japan, but most likely from China with a further migration to Japan, and from there in the 17th century to the West. The long history of cultivation of this species explains the existence of many varieties, including dwarf and variegated.
Synonyms: Chamaerops excelsa, Rhapis flabelliformis, Trachycarpus excelsus, Rhapis major, Rhapis kwamwonzick, Rhapis divaricata, Rhapis aspera, Rhapis cordata, Chamaerops kwanwortsik.
Despite the fact that the specific name of the plant is translated from Latin as "tall", this species is not the tallest in the genus. In nature, tall rapese grows up to 4-5 m, in culture it rarely exceeds 2-2.5 m. This is a multi-stemmed palm tree, which, with the help of underground shoots, forms rather dense thickets. Stems are thin, finger-thick, braided with a dense net of leaf sheaths, from which a young leaf emerges. Over time, the mesh falls off, and a smooth stem is exposed. The leaf blades are deeply dissected, about 4/5 of their length, forming 5-8 widely spaced linear-lanceolate leaflets up to 35 cm long. In the shade, the leaves are deep dark green in color, but when grown in the sun, the leaves acquire a yellowish tint.
This species can multiply by seeds, but mainly spread through underground stolons. In culture, it is most widespread. In Japan, it is used not only as an ornamental plant, but also for making chopsticks and walking sticks.
Rape is low, or squat (Rhapis humilis) originally from southern China. Outwardly, it is very similar to tall rapese, and among scientists there is an opinion that this is not a separate species, but its cultivar.
Synonyms: Chamaerops excelsa var. humilior, Licuala waraguh, Licuala wixu, Rhapis javanica, Chamaerops sirotsik, Rhapis sirotsik.
In nature, it reaches 6 m in height, in culture - no more than 1.5-2 m. A multi-stemmed palm tree with thinner stems and deeper than that of the previous species, dissected by leaf blades having up to 12 segments.
In culture, there are only male specimens, reproduction is possible exclusively in a vegetative way, by separating the basal offspring.
A very graceful palm tree widely cultivated in Indonesia and Japan. It is unpretentious in care, like tall rapese, but it tolerates heat worse and prefers soft irrigation water. More resistant to direct sun, leaves green color.
Multi-cut rape (Rhapis multifida) - endemic to South China. This species has been cultivated not so long ago and is still rare, although it is considered the most elegant and attractive among the raisis.
It grows in several stems up to 2.5 m tall in nature, but not more than 1.5 m in culture. Stems up to 1 cm thick, smooth, partially covered with a net of light brown fibers. The leaves are dark green and rather dense, deeply dissected almost to the base by 15 or more (up to 36) lobes. The leaflets are long, thin, pointed, form an almost closed circle, the two outer ones and the central one are wider than the others. Also known as Finger Palm.
The species is less tolerant of strong winds, frost and drought than tall rapese. In the open sun, the leaves turn yellow.
Rapis thin (Rhapis subtilis) comes from Thailand, Laos and Sumatra.
This is a multi-stemmed palm, forming dense groups, reaching 3 m in nature, in culture - no more than 1 m in height. The stems are densely covered with a coarse mesh of fibers. Outwardly similar to tall rapese. It is very variable, there are specimens with leaves from 2-4 short and, at the same time, from 11 relatively long segments. But basically it differs from other species in the structure of inflorescences and flowers. Propagated by seeds.
Rapeseed fine is often sold in garden centers as a dwarf cultivar for rapeseed, low or high. The disadvantage of this species when grown at home is the instability to spider mites.
Rapis graceful (Rhapis gracilis) originally from South and Southeast China. It is very similar to thin rapeseed, has differences in the structure of flowers.
Rapis kokhinkhinsky (Rhapis cochinchinensis) comes from Vietnam and Laos (Cochin Khin is the old name for the southern part of Vietnam).
In nature, it reaches 3 m in height, the stems are covered with a dense network of fibers. The leaf is divided into 3-9 (up to 12) segments. This species is more often monoecious, but it is the only one that has mixed inflorescences bearing male and bisexual flowers.
There are two types: Rhapis cochinchinensis var. laosensis, and Rhapis cochinchinensis var. macranthaslightly different in appearance and habitat.
Small-flowered rape (Rhapis micrantha) - also originally from Laos and Vietnam.
Stems up to 1-2 m tall. The leaf is divided into 5-7 segments.
Puhuongen Rapis (Rhapis puhuongensis) is a new species recently found in Vietnam.
A beautiful dwarf multi-stemmed palm with slender stems covered with a net of fibers, just over 1 m in height and no more than 8 mm in diameter. The leaves do not exceed 13.5 cm. At the petiole, the leaves are whole for 2-4.5 cm, then they are divided into 13-15 linear lobes 8-11 cm long.
The species is considered promising for growing in pots due to its miniature size.
Rapis powerful (Rhapis robusta) originates from Southeast China.
Multi-stemmed palm with stems up to 2 m in height and 1 cm in diameter, covered with fine brown fibers. The leaf is divided almost to the petiole, bears up to 4 lobes about 50 cm long and 2.5 cm wide.
Siamese rape (Rhapis siamensis) recently described from Thailand.
Multi-stemmed dioecious palm, in nature forming dense groups up to 3-5 m in diameter. The appearance strongly depends on the place of growth: on rich soils, larger leaves develop with a greater number of leaflets than on poor ones. Stems are covered with fibrous sheaths, leaves of 8-12 palmate segments.
Rapis Vidal (Rhapis vidalii) originally from Vietnam.
Semi-herbaceous palm with slender, slightly sinuous stems, forming loose groups of 3-10 plants of varying heights. Stems up to 1.5-2 m in height and 3-5 mm in diameter, covered with remnants of old leaves in the upper part, glabrous below. The crown has 5-10 leaves, segmented into 6-10 fingerlike narrow-lanceolate lobes up to 12-18 cm long and 3-5 mm wide.
Proper care of cypress requires strict adherence to seasonal climatic conditions. In the summer, the plant must be provided with warmth, and in the winter the air in the room must be cool. For a successful wintering of a home cypress, the temperature regime that is optimal for the plant should be observed - within + 8- + 15⁰С heat.
In the cold season, you cannot place a pot of cypress on the windowsill if there is a radiator under it: the plant will dry out and die. An insulated balcony will be an ideal wintering place. To prevent the roots of the plant from freezing, the flowerpot or pot should be insulated with improvised materials - you can use rags or pieces of styrofoam.