I have nothing but ficuses and nothing grows, but they are all sorts and grow perfectly. Now the article ...
Many gardeners are intimidated by pruning fruit trees for fear that it is difficult, but there are some simple rules that will make these things easier.
Arm yourself with sharp bypass pruners and some sturdy gloves if you are pruning gooseberries to protect your hands from their thorns.
The best fruits grow on branches that are 2-3 years old. Therefore, the first step is always to prune any wood that is older than that.
If you do this annually, in theory your fruit shrubs (gooseberries or currants) should not have any wood that is more than four years old.
Blackcurrants are pruned in a similar manner, but they bear fruit on wood that is 1-2 years old. Therefore, any branches older than this should be removed.
If you follow this rule, then you should remove about one third of the total number of bush branches every year.
Always cut them straight down to the base, which will stimulate the shrub to produce new strong fruiting stems from the bottom of the plant.
The second rule is to cut out any dead, diseased, damaged, or dying wood - usually easy to spot even if there are no leaves by the color of the bark - and the third rule is to take out any stems that grow inward towards the center of the bush.
The idea is to create a bowl-shaped bush with a fairly open center.
If you wish, you can then shorten the branches that you left behind and their side shoots by a couple of buds, which will stimulate the shrub to produce higher quality, larger fruit in slightly smaller quantities.
Track this by making sure the soil around the base of the bush is free of weeds.
A little later in the spring, fruit bushes and trees benefit from dispersing slow-release fertilizer (blood, fish, bones would be fine here) around their base, as well as a layer of mulch to retain moisture and minimize future weeding.
About the company: Tips, recommendations about the house and the cottage, the secrets of a rich harvest for gardeners, flower growers and amateur gardeners.
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How I Canned Cucumbers That Never Explode! My family's old recipe.
This cucumber recipe sounds a little odd, but cucumbers rolled this way never explode. Moreover, you don't need to sterilize and boil ANYTHING! Show in full.
1. We need freshly picked cucumbers, if not, soak them for 4-6 hours in cold water for crunching.
2. We prepare banks. Wash thoroughly with a cleaning agent, turn over and put on a clean towel.
3. By the time of canning, the jars must be dry! You don't need to keep them over steam, or in the oven, nothing! They just have to dry - this is the main condition.
4. Wash cucumbers with a sponge. Butt need not be cut.
5. We put two pots on the stove: one with clean water, the other with brine.
6. We wash horseradish leaves, dry dill in umbrellas, cut it all and put it in a saucepan. We clean the garlic, put it in a plate next to it. In a small saucepan, let the lids boil.
7. Brine: 1 liter of water will need 2 tbsp. tablespoons of salt and sugar.
The process itself:
1. Turn over our dried jars. Put three cloves of garlic at the bottom of each. We take a colander, put it on a saucepan with boiling water, and steam our dill and horseradish slices for a minute - and immediately throw them to the bottom to the garlic.
2. We take cucumbers (enough to fit in a jar). We throw them into a pot of boiling water for exactly 1 minute! That is, the water boils, you throw it, it stops boiling, you measure the minute with a timer, and immediately take them out and push them hot into the jar (they become temporarily elastic, so this is very easy to do).
3. After the whole jar has been filled with cucumbers, pour the brine that is boiling on the stove into the jars with a ladle. At the end, add 1 dessert spoon (a cross between a teaspoon and a tablespoon) of vinegar essence (not vinegar!). Close the lid, turn the jar upside down and wrap it in a blanket.
4. And so with each can. Of course, it is clear that the brine is prepared in a large saucepan.
And that's it! You don't need to sterilize ANYTHING and boil. There is so much sugar and salt that the brine does not become cloudy. Cans don't explode, and most importantly, cucumbers crunch!
Very tasty zucchini will be obtained according to this recipe. Try it!
For 3 kilograms of zucchini: Show in full.
marinade - 2 liters of water,
1.5 cups sugar
3 tablespoons of salt
1 cup vinegar 9%
Put the prepared zucchini in jars, add spices to taste (pepper, cloves, you can carrots and bell peppers for beauty, sprigs of herbs) pour boiling marinade and pasteurize for 15-20 minutes.
When the meat is fed up. DELICIOUS!
1. Pancakes baked with mushrooms
This recipe is for those who shouldn't be fried.
Show in full.
300 g champignons
1 tablespoon sour cream
2 tablespoons flour
1 bunch of dill
vegetable oil, salt, pepper
1.Cut mushrooms, onions, herbs
2. Fry onions with mushrooms in vegetable oil
3.In a bowl, combine egg, sour cream, salt, pepper
4.Grate potatoes on a coarse grater, squeeze, mix with sour cream-egg mixture, add flour, mix
5.Oil a baking tray and, using a small form, lay out a layer of potato mixture, mushrooms and again potato mixture, the height of the layer should be no more than 2 cm
6. Bake for 20 minutes at 200C, sprinkle with vegetable oil
7.Serve hot with sour cream
Zucchini 250 gr.
Tomatoes 180 gr.
green onions 80 gr.
Grated cheese 25 gr.
Flour 90 gr.
1/2 cup milk
Eggs 3 pcs.
1/2 tsp salt
1/4 tsp ground black pepper
1.Preheat the oven to 200 degrees.
2. Place in a baking dish by combining layers of courgettes, tomatoes, onions, and cheese. In a small bowl, combine flour, milk, eggs, salt and pepper until smooth. Pour in the vegetable mixture.
3.Bake in a preheated oven for 30 minutes.
3. How to cook country-style potatoes?
1 kg. large potatoes, not peeled
100 g of sunflower oil
spices: - a mixture of peppers (black, red, white)
salt to taste
garlic 4 cloves
How to cook potatoes in a rustic way? The recipe is pretty simple. We take large and oblong potatoes, not peeled with peels, wipe them dry so that they are dry. Cut lengthwise into 4-5 pieces, depending on the size of the potato. Put on a baking sheet, salt, pepper, sprinkle with spices, squeeze the garlic through the garlic, you can add other spices for the potatoes if you wish. Pour the sunflower oil over the potatoes and mix everything right on the pan with your hands - so that the salt, pepper, spices and garlic are evenly distributed over the potatoes.
We put in the oven and bake at a temperature of 200 - 180 * C. First, for 200 * C for 6-8 minutes, then reduce the temperature. Stir from time to time gently with a spatula so as not to burn., About 3 times. Bake until tender and golden brown for about 20 minutes. The main thing is not to overexpose. When ready to put on a dish and decorate. Serve mayonnaise, mustard, ketchup. These dishes are like a stick - a lifesaver of minimum cost and time. Nice side dish as well as a separate dish. Now we know exactly how to prepare this dish.
4. Delicious zucchini cake
4 - small zucchini
200 gr - mayonnaise
100 gr - cheese
2- large carrots
2 - bulbs
garlic, salt. pepper - to taste
flour - until the consistency of a dough like a pancake
Wash and peel the zucchini. Grate on a coarse grater, salt and pepper and let stand for a while until the zucchini exude juice. Then squeeze them, add eggs and flour. Fry the cakes in a preheated skillet with a little added grows. oils.
FOR FILLING: Finely chop the onion, coarsely grate the carrots. Fry until soft. In a separate bowl, mix mayonnaise with garlic and dill. Grate the cheese in advance. Cut the tomatoes into thin slices. I also use them to shift the layers of the cake.
While the next crust is fried, on the finished one we spread a layer of mayonnaise with garlic and herbs, spread the onion and carrot filling, lay out the tomato slices, sprinkle with grated cheese. Cover with ready-made, hot crust. So repeat with each layer! The cheese is melted from the freshly baked crust and holds the cake together.
5. Aromatic fries baked in the oven
- 8 large potatoes
- 2 egg whites
- dry spice mix (paprika, chili, black pepper, salt, Italian herb mix)
- olive oil
- Wash, peel, cut the potatoes into wedges
- Whisk the whites well and pour over the potato wedges, mix them well
- Top with a spice mix and mix thoroughly
- Place on a well-oiled baking sheet
- Bake at 220 degrees for 40 minutes, stir gently with a spatula every 7-10 minutes.
One of the cryoprotective proteins that the tree forms upon freezing is proline... The one that in humans helps the production of collagen, improves the structure of the skin, strengthens the heart muscle, ensures the normal functioning of the liver, kidneys, and blood vessels. Different plants accumulate it in different ways, but in any case, in the bark and buds after exposure to low temperatures, its amount increases significantly.
It is not surprising that hares jump so well - their ligaments are strong, the heart too. By protecting our trees from them, we undermine their health.
As already mentioned, in preparation for winter, lignification of young shoots occurs, that is, in the cell walls is deposited lignin... No less useful than proline, only in a different area, mainly in the gastrointestinal area. Only this is not a protein, but a complex polymeric compound that holds cellulose fibers together in wood. With digestion, hares are also doing well.
Anthocyanins also accumulate in the bark and annual branches by winter; their content begins to decrease with warming. Volumes have been written about the benefits of these compounds, a ton of commercials have been released, as a result of which blue-purple berries, fruits and vegetables have gained unprecedented popularity. The substances play a significant role in the fight against diabetes and obesity, in the prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and inflammatory diseases. For the most part, they are concentrated in the bark of trees (and rodents know something!).
In addition, trees and shrubs accumulate in the shoots for the winter. phenolic compounds, in particular, catechinswith strong antioxidant activity. That is, in the shoots, of course, there are not only catechins, but a whole range of phenolic compounds. And the set of useful properties they have is very wide: from anti-inflammatory to regulating the function of the endocrine glands.
In general, it is already clear that hares and mice know something about the benefits of winter bark and brazenly take advantage of the fruits of gardeners' back-breaking labor. I propose to compete with them.
The above substances are found in absolutely all woody and shrub plants in our garden, but each plant also has its own unique set of useful properties.
Cut branches of fruit trees and bushes. © Travushka-Ant
The crown of a pear has a round or pyramidal shape, prone to overgrowth and thickening. Therefore, you need to approach with particular care when cutting wood. The height of the fruit tree varies, depending on the variety, from 5 to 20 meters. The trunk diameter can be up to 5 meters wide.
The flowering period of the pear begins at the end of April-May. The flowers are white, 2.5-3 centimeters in size. The fruit of a pear is oblong in shape, narrows towards the beginning of the ovary, but there are varieties of a round shape.
Pear begins to bear fruit 6-7 years after planting. And it bears fruit for 70-100 years. The roots of the pear are low-branched, they go deeper into the soil by 40-80 centimeters. Compared to the apple tree, the pear is a less winter-hardy culture, but there are varieties that can withstand up to -35 frost.
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The whole life of Siberian gardeners is associated with experimentation. A garden and a vegetable garden in Siberia, in one way or another, became possible thanks to experience. This was the beginning of the pioneers of Siberian gardening. This work is being continued by a huge army of amateur gardeners. The interests and tastes of people are different, but the common passion for the new remains.
Scientific research work on gardening in Siberia is carried out by numerous experimental stations, where the collection, study and creation of new varieties, as well as the improvement of agricultural technology for their cultivation, are carried out.
As a result of many years of research by scientific institutions, it became possible to industrial cultivation in Siberia of ranetka apple trees, currants, raspberries, sea buckthorn, the breed assortment in amateur gardening was expanded. However, the existing achievements do not fully reveal the potential of fruit and berry crops. So, for example, for black currant, the potential yield is estimated at 500 c / ha. And we get at best 150 c / ha. For strawberries, the potential yield from 1 m² is considered to be 5 kg or more. In fact, the production of 2-3 kg / m² is estimated to be a record one.
Finding ways to get the maximum yield of fruits and berries per unit area is the main task of amateur gardeners. The main directions of these works can be: selection, variety study and agricultural technology.
The simplest and most affordable way of selection is to collect ripe fruits, isolate seeds from them and sow. It should be remembered that the seeds of berry crops can be sown at the end of August - September, and they will sprout next year. If you sow immediately after the berries ripen, then the seeds will germinate and young seedlings will not get stronger by winter.
But for strawberries and honeysuckle, summer sowing is quite acceptable. It is only necessary to create favorable conditions for the growth of seedlings. Fill the boxes with a mixture of turf, sand, humus (1: 1: 1), cover with glass and water systematically. By the fall, three to five or more true leaves will appear on the plants. For the winter, the boxes should be covered with insulating material (leaves, straw).
The seeds of apple, pear, plum, cherry require two to three months of stratification at a temperature of 0 + 2 ° and they are sown in spring. To obtain seeds of fruit crops, varieties of Siberian, Ural, Far Eastern selection and the northern regions of the European part of the country should be taken. Southern and Western European varieties are unsuitable, since they give non-immune offspring.
Obtaining seeds from artificial hybridization is more promising. At the same time, local varieties with increased productivity are taken as the maternal parent, and varieties with valuable missing traits are taken as the paternal parent.
To carry out the work, you should stock up on gauze bags, tweezers, penicillin bubbles, a razor blade, a wire and an elastic band. On apple, pear, plum, cherry, pollen is first harvested by collecting buds and separating pollen bags. Then gauze insulators are hung on the branches of the parent variety. When the buds are blooming, pollination is carried out using a piece of rubber band fixed on a wire, and insulators are put on again.
Most of the new varieties of currants, gooseberries, raspberries, strawberries have self-pollinating flowers. Therefore, it is necessary to carry out castration on these cultures, i.e. removal of male organs with a razor, cutting off the corolla of the flower with stamens. Immediately after castration, the first pollination is carried out, and the next day - the second.
In fruit crops, pollination is carried out as the flowers bloom. When the female organ of the pistil flower is ready to receive pollen, a liquid appears at its tip, to which the pollen adheres well.
10-15 days after pollination of fruit and berry crops, an audit is carried out, gauze insulators are removed, leaving labels with a record of the paternal variety. And at the beginning of fruit ripening, the insulators are hung again to prevent their accidental losses. More details on the hybridization technique can be found in scientific institutions and in special literature.
All gardeners are passionate about collecting and studying new breeds and varieties of fruit, berry crops and flower and ornamental plants. To obtain a novelty variety, the gardener goes to any conditions and costs. Here's how to evaluate a new variety. For this, there are certain rules - the method of variety testing.
The main elements of the study of a new variety are: assessments of winter hardiness, yield, fruit quality, phenological observations. But the assessment of potential productivity is especially important. In black currant, for example, this indicator is the number of berries, flowers, inflorescences per 1 m of annual growth.
To assess the productivity of the variety in spring, during flowering, measure the length of three to five last year's growths and count the flowers, inflorescences, and at the end of summer - the berries and their total weight. If, on average, 1 m of growth will be up to 50 inflorescences, 500 flowers, 300 berries and up to 300-400 g of crop mass, then you have a high-yielding large-fruited variety.
Self-fertility is also an important economic feature of currant and gooseberry varieties. You can determine it by putting a gauze insulator on a branch before flowering. If 30 or more berries are tied out of 100 flowers, then your variety is self-fertile.
Given the limited area of the garden plot, when studying new varieties, thickened plantings up to 0.4-0.5 m between the bushes are permissible. For fruit crops, grafting of several varieties into the crown of the skeleton-forming plant is effective.
New crops are very popular in Siberia - sea buckthorn, honeysuckle, irga. Many gardeners grow viburnum, mountain ash, bird cherry. Lingonberries, blueberries, blueberries, cranberries, rose hips, which have amazing medicinal and nutritional qualities, are persistently asked to visit our gardens.
It is the duty of Siberian gardeners to introduce them into culture! They don't need a lot of space. Plant 1-2 m² of these shrubs and they will provide your family with a treat. The success of the cultivation of blueberries, lingonberries and other shrubs is possible only with knowledge of their biological characteristics and location requirements.
The gardener has great opportunities to study ornamental plants. At the Siberian experimental fruit growing stations, a study of 252 species of ornamental shrubs was carried out and 70 promising ones were identified. Testing and selecting the best ones for your garden is an exciting and noble job.
The study of peonies, tulips, gladioli and, especially, roses in Siberia is very promising. But you need to work well with roses, having studied ways to preserve them in the winter and expanding the growing season due to film shelters. The selection of the best floral and ornamental plants will allow you to create a unique ensemble of living garden architecture.
Experiments in agricultural engineering can include methods for pruning and grafting fruit trees, fertilizing and caring for, protecting against diseases, pests, rodents, preserving them from freezing, podoprevanie and, finally, methods for plant propagation. In this case, it is imperative to follow the rules of comparison with control. For example, when studying the effect of fertilizers, some of the plants should be left on the usual agricultural background. If an increase is obtained when fertilizing, then their effect is obvious.
To combat diseases and pests of the garden, it is very important to test plant poisons - infusions from the leaves of tomato, onion, garlic, hellebore, etc. In this case, all precautions should be observed.
A wide field of research by the gardener on the placement and gardening of berry and vegetable crops in order to effectively use the land. Growing strawberries, for example, can be successfully combined with planting in rows of winter garlic, the smell of which repels pests.
Planting onions can be combined with sowing carrots, which grow and develop after the first crop is harvested. On the site of the future planting of tomatoes, you can grow a crop of radish, dill, or, finally, forcing under a film of tulips. In a garden bed with a batun onion, you can make a vertical wall of strawberry plantings and get additional berry production.
Examples of experiments could be continued. Each of them can give interesting results for use in a micro plot, in a collective garden and in the country.
All about growing fruits and vegetables
It is impossible to live in the countryside and not grow any fruit crops on your site. Even if there is only one hundred square meters of land near your house, sooner or later you will plant an apple or cherry tree on it and, at least, organize a vertical garden bed. Because there is nothing tastier than home-grown fruits, vegetables, berries and even mushrooms. And, given the fact that it is becoming more and more difficult to buy really healthy fruits in a store or on the market (not processed excessively with chemistry) every day, then your own garden and vegetable garden is just a necessity. Our heading was created so that you can easily and with pleasure learn how to get results from your work in the garden and in the beds.
An experienced summer resident knows what a long way all the fruits that fall on his table from his own garden or vegetable garden go. How much work, how much attention is put into each cucumber or apple! And how much joy the tender greens bring, the first to hatch from under the snow in spring. How much pride you can feel when you grow the largest onion in the area! The materials of our section will help experienced summer residents and, especially, beginners, to understand all the intricacies of growing garden and vegetable garden crops. How to keep seedlings until spring? How to prepare good seedling soil? How to cover strawberries for the winter? The list of questions to which the materials of this section give answers has long exceeded a thousand. And our authors work every day to replenish them. If you have your own orchard and vegetable garden, and, moreover, if you are only planning them, visit us more often, and growing your own vegetables, fruits, berries, herbs and mushrooms will turn into a favorite hobby. You can share your achievements on this front in the relevant topics of the Botanichki Forum.