Sophora Japanese


Sophora Japanese (Styphnolobium japonicum) is a beautiful branchy tree with a lush crown. It belongs to the legume family and began its distribution in Japan and China. Due to the similarity of plant characteristics with acacia, sophora is often referred to as "Japanese acacia" or "pagoda". The tree stands out against the background of other inhabitants of the garden with spreading light green lush branches and will perfectly decorate any garden located in the southern or temperate latitudes.

The sophora plant is valued for its unique decorative and medicinal properties, which explains its use as an effective folk remedy. It is also worth noting that Japanese Sophora has also found recognition in official medicine. That is why many gardeners dream of growing such an exotic plant on their own plot.

Sophora Japanese description

Japanese Sophora is a deciduous tree that grows up to 20-25 m. It has a spherical, spreading or umbrella crown. The lower branches are located close enough to the ground. Covered with thick cracked bark. The leaves are smooth, bright green, arranged alternately on the branches. In the evening, the leaves roll up, and the next morning they open.

At the end of summer, flowering begins, and white-yellow double brushes appear, which gather in panicles hanging from the tips of the shoots. The average length of the inflorescences is about 35 cm. The peduncles, like the branches, look branched and contain keel-like delicate flowers. The size of the flowers is no more than 1 cm. The structure of the flower includes numerous petals and a drooping pedicel.

Sophora has melliferous properties. The honey collected by bees from flowers is considered curative and has a light amber tone. At the end of the pollination period, and this happens in October or early November, the plant bears fruit with juicy beans, hiding under the valves of thickened pods. The color of the pods is expressed in green-brown tones. By the end of ripening, the pods turn red. The beans stick firmly to the branches and can survive on the tree even in winter.

Growing Japanese Sophora

Cuttings or seeds are used to grow Sophora. Only fresh seeds are suitable as seed. To accelerate the emergence of seedlings, hot stratification is done, in which the seeds are pre-soaked for a couple of hours in boiling water, or scarification is arranged. We are talking about processing the skin with a nail file.

The material prepared in one way or another is placed in pots pre-filled with sand mixed with peat. The sowing depth is no more than 2-3 cm. After that, the plantings are sprayed with water and placed under a film. The growing process must take place at a temperature not lower than +200C. Important activities in the cultivation of Sophora are maintaining temperature and access to light. Seedling growth is slow, you should be patient. A pick is organized for grown plants that have acquired at least a couple of strong leaves. The roots extracted from the soil must be cut by a third. Only then are the seedlings transplanted into new pots.

The optimal time for cuttings is spring or summer. To prepare cuttings, the tops of the shoots are carefully cut off with a length of about 10 cm, keeping several healthy leaves. The place of the cut is required to be lubricated with "Kornevin" in order to stimulate the growth of seedlings. The planted cuttings are placed under plastic bottles with a cut out bottom. Seedlings need regular ventilation and moisture.

Sophora planting

The cultivated species of Sophora, grown in the garden, easily overgrow with new branches and let deep rhizomes, but it is difficult to survive transplantation to a new place. It is recommended to replant young trees after a year. In perennial specimens, it is sufficient to replace only the topsoil. Since sophora has inherited traits from the legume family, it interacts with fungi that are in the ground. The result of symbiosis is the formation of not too voluminous whitish thickenings. Such a union "agreement" of two living organisms can be violated if, during transplantation, shake off the earth from the rhizome.

A favorable time for planting Sophora is the middle of winter, when the growing processes have not yet come out of the "hibernation" mode. Sophora is undemanding to the type of soil, however, the substrate must be air permeable and loose. Often, universal soil mixtures are used, consisting of garden soil and river sand. Having dug a hole, it is covered with a layer of drainage for better breathability.

Sophora japonica care

Caring for Japanese Sophora does not cause many problems. Growing a tree is allowed to be organized either in the fresh air or under indoor conditions. Trees growing on the territory of Crimea, Sakhalin, the Caucasus and remote corners of southern Siberia transfer successful wintering outdoors. Indoor species require periodic pruning and containment of crown growth. Sophora will be an excellent gardener for office space and country houses. The tree is planted in a large tub and taken out for airing in the spring and summer months. It is important for proper development to maintain consistent and correct grooming.

Lighting

Sophora Japanese overreacts to lack of light. The tub with the plant is placed in a well-lit room, where the light during the day will touch the shoots and leaves for as long as possible. Direct sunlight is not dangerous for the tree, but in hot summer weather, it is better not to risk it and remove the plant further into the shade. During the short winter daylight hours, it is recommended to install additional lighting near the planting flowerpot.

Temperature

The adaptation process is fast enough. The plant can withstand even hot weather, but without ventilation indoors, foliage and branches will begin to fade. In winter, the tub with a tree is transferred to the cool. Sophora japonica, grown outdoors in the open air, withstands short-term frosts, provided that it provides shelter around the trunk circle. In addition, with the arrival of winter, it is important to consider, as mentioned earlier, additional lighting in case of a lack of natural light.

Air humidity

In the natural environment, the tree chooses remote wastelands where it is easy to cope with low moisture readings. Branches and leaves do without spraying, but they need bathing and cleaning from accumulations of dust particles on their surface. It is especially important to wipe the ground parts of office gardeners.

Japanese Sophora is watered sparingly. A short-term drought will not harm her, but prolonged abstinence from water will be detrimental to the plant. Foliage may fall off due to lack of moisture. And, conversely, overflow of soil leads to decay of the root system and disruption of crown growth. Irrigation water is suitable for both settled and tap water with high hardness.

Top dressing

Since the end of winter, the tree is regularly fed. Every two weeks, the soil is enriched with solutions of mineral and organic fertilizers used in practical gardening for indoor flowering crops.

Pruning

The actively growing crown of the sophora requires pruning, since the annual growth of greenery often reaches up to 1.5 m.Shoots are periodically pinched for better branching and maintaining their shape. The most massive branches that form the skeleton of a tree cannot be cut without the help of a pruner.

Wintering

For outdoor plants, the only protection against unexpected frosts is considered to be mulching the site. The trunk circle is wrapped in peat or fallen leaves. Indoor Sophora trees tend to shed their leaves during the cool winter. The longer the daylight hours, the faster the buds will develop and the young foliage will grow. As soon as new growth appears, it is necessary to water the tree more abundantly and start applying the first top dressing.

Diseases and pests

If you do not adhere to the rules of care and transfuse the plant, the root system will be affected by rot. It is possible to stop putrefactive processes in tissues only through treatment with fungicidal preparations. There is also an infection of the ground part with a scab, aphids or moths. Pests can be stopped by insecticides.

Garden application of Sophora

Thanks to the wide spreading branches, decorated with lush and rich foliage, it is practical to install a gazebo under the sophora tree, arrange a resting place or organize a playground for children. The branches are very strong and can withstand a serious load, which allows you to fix the swing on them and make a real surprise for the children. The crown will be an excellent protection from the scorching sun rays, and the delicate sweetish aroma of inflorescences will create a cozy atmosphere. Sophora takes up a lot of space in the garden, so just one plant is enough. Alley plantings of this perennial are suitable for the park complex.

Sophora Japanese: benefits and harms

Healing properties

Both the ground parts and the roots of Japanese Sophora contain useful substances. First of all, we are talking about the flavonoid rutin, which strengthens the capillaries, reduces blood clotting and eliminates traces of edema. The alkaloid pachicarpin was also found in the tissues, which has a sedative effect. It stimulates the walls of the uterus and stabilizes the pressure. Found trace elements - potassium, boron, magnesium, zinc, iron renew the skin, remove toxins and give strength to the muscles. Glycosides expand the walls of blood vessels, remove phlegm and reduce excitability, and organic acids prevent the development of putrefactive processes in the stomach and the accumulation of toxins.

The use of Sophora has a positive effect on the performance of the circulatory system. Its substances act on the capillaries and reduce the risk of plaque formation in the lumen. Herbal raw materials are dried leaves, unripe fruits and newly emerged flowers. Drying is organized in a cool room with air access. Blanks are allowed to be used for no more than a year. On their basis, herbal teas, decoctions and tinctures are made on alcohol.

Sophora's rutin acts as a sedative and helps to cope with a number of diseases. Lotions, compresses from dried raw materials relieve inflammation and heal wounds, and a few drops of alcohol tincture successfully cure toothache.

Sophora has a beneficial effect on the functioning of the brain, therefore, in official medicine, Sophora is used as a prophylactic agent for stroke.

SOPHORA - blood, heart, diabetes, skin. Contraindications

Contraindications

There are almost no contraindications to the use of leaves, flowers and roots of Sophora, however, it is better for the category of allergy sufferers to refrain from such raw materials. Even if signs of a rash are not immediately detected, symptoms may appear much later.

Observing the correct dosage of Sophora preparations, the plant will not harm the body. It is not recommended to use medicinal drugs for pregnant women and young children. Adverse reactions to drugs often include indigestion, nausea and vomiting.


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THE LEAVES OF Eucalyptus are included in the collection

SESSAGE LEAVES ARE INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION

RUNNERS OF THE BAGULNY ARE INCLUDED IN THE ASSEMBLY

LEAVES OF CASSIA (SENNA) ARE INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION

TOLOKNYAN REGULAR LEAVES ARE INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION

PAISMA REGULAR FLOWERS ARE INCLUDED IN THE COLLECTION

THE SOURCE OF RUTIN IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF MENTHOL IS A RAW PLANT

! lemon balm! marsh rosemary

THE SOURCE OF GLAUCIN IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF DIGOXIN IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF CELLANIDE IS THE RAW MATERIAL OF THE PLANT

! + woolly foxglove! spring adonis

THE SOURCE OF BERBERINE IS A RAW PLANT

! + common barberry! madder dye

THE SOURCE OF AESCIN IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF GLYCYRAM IS THE RAW MATERIAL OF THE PLANT

THE SOURCE OF GLYCYRRISIC ACID IS THE RAW MATERIAL OF THE PLANT

THE SOURCE OF ESCUZAN IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF ICE IS A RAW PLANT

THE SOURCE OF DIHYDROQUERCETIN IS A PLANT RAW MATERIAL

THE SOURCE OF SAPARAL IS A RAW PLANT

! + Manchu Aralia! stinging nettle

FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF CASSIA OF SHEAR LEAVES, CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF HOP OF FRUITS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS CRUSHINA FRACTURED BARK CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS JOSTER IS A CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF BLOOD BREAD OF MEDICINAL ROOT AND ROOTS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS, STRAIGHT ROOT LEGS A CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PRODUCTS ORANGE OAK, CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS MELISSA HERBAL CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF PEPPERMINT LEAVES CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF THE WASTEEN OF THE PENTAFANE HERB, THE MAIN PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT IS CHARACTERISTIC

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF LARGE LEAVES, THE MAIN PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT IS CHARACTERISTIC

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS THYME CREEPING HERBS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

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? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF THYME OF ORDINARY HERB, CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS SHEPHERD'S BAGS OF HERBS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS MOTHER-AND-STEPHY ​​LEAVES CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS ALthea BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

! hepatoprotective (protective for liver cells)

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF EUCALYPTUS OF RUDOUS LEAVES CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS OF THE FIELD HERBS, THE CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS ERVA WOOL GRASS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS RODIOLA PINK ROOT AND ROOTS CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS ELEUTEROCOCCUS OF NICE ROOTS AND ROOTS A CHARACTERISTIC BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR MEDICINAL PREPARATIONS GINSENG BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? FOR DRUGS ARALIA BASIC PHARMACOLOGICAL EFFECT

? PREPARATIONS OF MILK THISTLE FRUIT HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? PREPARATION OF PURPLE LEAVES HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? PREPARATIONS FOR WOOL LEAVES HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? IMMORTAL PREPARATIONS OF SANDFLOWERS HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? PREPARATIONS OF PERMA OF THE ORDINARY FLOWER HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? POLYSACCHARIDES, AS A RULE, HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? TANNING SUBSTANCES, AS A RULE, HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? ANTHRAGLYCOSIDES, AS A RULE, HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? SAPONINS, AS A RULE, HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, AS A RULE, HAVE EXPRESSED PHARMACOLOGICAL PROPERTIES

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "Animal Herb"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "Animal Herb"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL HERBAL RAW MATERIALS "ECHINACEA PURPLE HERB"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "MILK THISTLE FRUIT"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "MILK THISTLE FRUIT"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "ORDINARY FLOWERS"

? A MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM THE MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "SESSION OF THE MEDICINAL LEAVE"

? MEDICINAL PREPARATION IS PRODUCED FROM MEDICINAL PLANT RAW MATERIALS "CHAMOMILE OF PHARMACY'S FLOWER"


Availability and relative cheapness make this product popular. It is recommended to athletes for quick recovery of strength, to all people who care about their health, weakened patients. Both children and adults will benefit from it.

Biologically active substances are contained in the product in large quantities. These are vitamins, minerals, proteins, amino acids. They determine its properties. Rutin, included in Sophora honey, strengthens and cleanses the vascular walls, restoring their elasticity. The effect extends to all vessels, for example, the fragility of the capillaries decreases. Sophora flowers are used to prevent and treat strokes, as well as honey collected from the plant. The walls of blood vessels are cleansed, cholesterol and sugar levels are lowered. Normalizes blood pressure. Diseases such as thrombophlebitis, hemorrhoids, atherosclerosis are indications for the use of this product.

It improves eyesight. This happens due to the restoration of the retina of the eyes.

Fermented milk products with the addition of honey are useful. In such a mixture, calcium and magnesium, which are necessary for the skeleton, are better absorbed. This is an excellent prevention of such a common disease as osteoporosis. It is also useful to eat cottage cheese with sophora honey.

The product is useful for immunity and metabolic processes.

Traditional medicine unconditionally recognizes the beneficial properties of honey. Here we see her enviable unanimity with the traditional one. The product is recognized by everyone, honey from Sophora is no exception. It has been used by healers for many centuries and is recommended by medical practitioners.


Sophora japonica - gardening

Wormwood-abrotanum (Artemisia abrotanum), or God's tree, is the name of a perennial semi-shrub plant, which was in great honor among medieval collectors of medicinal herbs. In the "Herbarium" of Bankes it is noted that "this herb, if burned and the ashes collected and rubbed with vegetable oil, restores hair growth in those who have already lost them."

The embryo in the womb is 94-97% water. And when a baby is born, the content of this fluid in his body is already 85%. Therefore, at all stages of pregnancy, right up to the very birth of the child, the quality of the drinking substance is a decisive factor.

Gardeners grow medicinal herbs in their area in different ways. Since many medicinal herbs and plants bloom beautifully and vividly, gardeners plant them together in different variations, in the form of flower beds, for example. They are also planted as weeds, along hedges or under trees. Double benefit: beautiful and useful. And rightly so, medicinal herbs do not like the sun, they are comfortable in light partial shade.

Sophora japonica belongs to the legume family, which includes not only herbaceous plants (peas, clover, beans), but also trees and shrubs (amorph, white acacia, golden rain). In its natural state, it grows in the countries of East Asia. Introduced to Ukraine at the beginning of the nineteenth century. It is a deciduous tree that grows up to 25 m tall in favorable conditions. The bark of the trunk is dark gray, slightly cracked.

Recently I had the opportunity to look through the supplement to the "Village Bulletin" for 1910. In an article about a peasant garden, I drew attention to the fact that in the section on the cultivation of individual vegetables, immediately after the white cabbage, it was said about the cucumber. Onions, garlic, beets, carrots and other crops were mentioned after. In the modern book "Your Garden" (1999 edition), in the section "Cultivation of Vegetable Crops", pumpkin plants, thanks to the cucumber, also rank second after cabbage plants.

It is impossible to give up coffee if you have been drinking it all your life! And what to do now when heart disease forces you to do it? I am looking for a worthy replacement, tell me.

What foods and herbs contain such beneficial silicon for the body?


Medicinal plants and medicinal plant materials containing flavonoids

MEDICINAL PLANTS AND MEDICINAL HERBAL RAW MATERIALS CONTAINING FLAVONOIDS

The concept of flavonoids and general characteristics. Distribution in the plant world, localization. Factors influencing accumulation, biological role. Classification. Biosynthesis of flavonoids - rings A and B. Physicochemical properties. Selection and identification methods. Qualitative analysis. Chromatographic analysis methods. Quantitation. Procurement, drying, storage methods. The use of medicinal products in medicine. Works on the study of flavonoids.

Flavonoids called a group of natural phenolic compounds - derivatives of benzo-gamma-pyrone, which are based on a skeleton consisting of two benzene rings (A and B), interconnected by a three-carbon chain (propane skeleton), i.e., consisting of C6-C3- C6 carbon units.

These are heterocyclic compounds with an oxygen atom in the ring.

gamma pyrone benzo gamma pyrone flavone

When a hydrogen atom in the α-position is replaced in chromone by a phenyl group, 2-phenyl- (α) -benzo-γ-pyrone or flavone is formed,

which consists of 2 aromatic residues A and B and a three-carbon unit (propane skeleton).

With the participation of a propane bridge, a heterocycle is formed in most flavonoids - a derivative of pyran or gamma-pyrone.

Under the term flavonoids, various compounds are combined that are genetically related to each other, but have different pharmacological actions.

They got their name from the Latin word flavus - yellow, since the first flavonoids isolated from plants had a yellow color, later it was established that many of them are colorless).

The Russian botanist began domestic work on the study of plant flavonoids in 1863, and in 1903 he conducted research to prove the structure of a number of flavonoids (rutin, robinin).

Distribution in the plant kingdom.

Flavonoids are widely distributed in the plant kingdom.

They are found in almost all higher plants (flowering and spore), as well as in green algae (duckweed), spore algae (mosses, ferns), horsetails (field horsetail), and in some insects (marble-white butterfly).

Higher plants belonging to the following families are especially rich in flavonoids:

rosaceae (various types of hawthorns, black chokeberry), legumes (Japanese sophora, field steel, licorice),

buckwheat (various types of mountaineers - pepper, honey, bird: buckwheat),

aster (sandy immortelle, marsh creeper, tansy),

lamellar (motherwort cordial.

More commonly, flavonoids are found in tropical and alpine plants.

Much less common in microorganisms and insects.

About 40% of flavonoids are in the group of flavonol derivatives, the group of flavone derivatives is somewhat smaller, flavanones, chalcones, and aurones are much less common.

Localization and role in plants.

Flavonoids are found in various parts and organs of the plant. Most often they accumulate in the aerial part of the plant.

- herbs: motherwort, mountaineers, peppermint, poultry, bird, marsh creeper, string, St. John's wort, violets of the field and tricolor, astragalus woolly-flowered, horsetail

- flowers - tansy, sandy immortelle, hawthorn, blue cornflower, Japanese sophora buds

- leaves - Chinese tea fruits - hawthorn, Japanese sophora, black chokeberry, citrus exocarp, less often in underground organs - roots of licorice, steelicum, Scutellaria baikal.

In plants, flavonoids are most often contained in the form of glycosides, which are dissolved in the cell sap, concentrated in vacuoles and fluoro - and chloroplasts.

The percentage of flavonoids during the growing season is subject to large fluctuations.

The richest in them are young flowers, unripe fruits.

The maximum accumulation of flavonoids in the aboveground part is during the period of budding and flowering, then the content of flavonoids decreases, in the underground organs the maximum accumulation is during the period of fruiting.

The content of flavonoids in plants is different: on average, 0.5-5%, sometimes up to 20% (in Japanese Sophora flowers).

The flower petals usually contain anthocyanins (anthocyanidin glycosides), causing the color of most scarlet, red, mauve and blue flowers.

Flavonol glycosides, aurones and chalcones are involved in the color of yellow flowers, although carotenoids are the most important source of yellow color in nature.

Glycosylation of flavonoid pigments flowers are essential:

1 - ensures their resistance to light and enzymes

2 - in the form of glycosides, the solubility of pigments in the cell sap improves.

The fruit is colored by anthocyanins.

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Flavonoid glycosides predominate in the leaves of flavonoids.

In seeds, flavonoids can be free and bound.

Under the influence of enzymes, they are broken down into sugars and aglycones.

D-glucose, D-galactose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and L-arabinose are found as sugars, and one D-glucuric acid can also be added.

Ketohexoses are usually not involved in the formation of flavonoid glycosides.

All of these sugars are found in pyranose form, and arabinose in furanose form.

Sugars are usually β-linked to phenolic hydroxyls.

Of the disaccharides in flavonoid glycosides, the most common are rutinose (rhamnose 4-glucose) sophorose (glucose + glucose) sambubiose (xylose + glucose).

Less is known about trisaccharides than about disaccharides; only 6 trisaccharides are described.

No flavonoid glycosides were found containing more than three sugar residues.

All flavonoid glycosides are divided into three groups: O-glycosides, C-glycosides and complex compounds.

Factors affecting the accumulation of flavonoids.

Young organs are the richest in them.

age and phase of plant development.

The greatest amount of flavonoids accumulates in many plants in the aerial part in the budding and flowering phase, then the content of flavonoids decreases

In the underground organs, the maximum accumulation is during the fruiting period.

The accumulation of flavonoids is facilitated by moderate humidity and moderate temperature, altitude, the soil should be rich in nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus, etc.).

That is, in the southern and highland regions, under the influence of light and on soils rich in trace elements, the content of flavonoids increases.

The biological role of flavonoids.

As phenolic compounds, they take part in redox processes and in the process of photosynthesis.

Together with ascorbic acid, they participate in enzymatic (enzymatic) oxidation and reduction processes.

In seeds, flavonoids can act as germination inhibitors.

Being plant pigments, flavonoids (anthocyanins) impart a bright color to flowers, which attracts insects and thereby contributes to pollination and plant reproduction.

The modern classification is based on:

- oxidation and hydroxylation states of the propane skeleton

- the position of the lateral phenyl radical

- the presence or absence of a heterocycle.

Based on this, flavonoids are divided into several groups:

Flavones- colorless or slightly yellow, their hydroxylated forms are found in the flowers of tansy, chamomile (flavone apigenin). The phenyl group is located in the 2nd position.

MThe least common in nature: isoflavonoids, neoflavonoids, biflavonoids.

Isoflavonoids(the roots of the field steel). The phenyl group is in position 3 at C3. The formation of isoflavonoids is typical for representatives of the legume families, the subfamily of moths, less often for the families of iris and rosaceae.

Neoflavonoids - 4-phenylchromone derivatives

Biflavonoids - dimeric compounds consisting of C-C-linked flavones, flavonones and flavone-flavanones.

Derivatives flavone owns flavonols, flavanonols, flavanones. Flavones and flavonols are the most oxidized forms of flavonoids found widely in plants.)

Flavonols- pale yellow in color.

They differ from flavones by the presence of a group - OH in the 3rd position.

More than 210 flavonol aglycones have been isolated.

The most famous of them are quercetin, kaempferol, isorhamnetin, myricetin.

With an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups and depending on their position, the color density increases. Compounds with 4-5 hydroxyl groups are more common, for example:

Kaempferol Quercetin

Of the 20 known hydroxylated flavones, the most common are apigenin and luteolin:

The glycoside rutin is of great importance for medicine - the aglycone of which is 3,5,7,3 ', 4'-tetrahydrooxyflavonol, the sugary part is represented by glucose and rhamnose.

3-rutinoside (glucoramnoside) quercetin

Rutin is found in buckwheat, mountaineers (pepper, pochechuyny, spore), violet grass, motherwort, St. John's wort, fruits and buds of Japanese sophora, fruits of chokeberry.

Reconstituted (flavan derivatives)

Flavans- derivatives of 2-phenylchroman

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Flavan derivatives include catechins (flavan-3-ols),

Leukoanthocyanidins (flavan-3,4-diols) and anthocyanidins.

Catechins are the most reduced flavonoid compounds.

The flavan-3-ol molecule contains two asymmetric carbon atoms in the pyran ring (C2 and C3), so four isomers and two racemates are possible for each molecule.

So isomers (+) - catechin and (-) - epicatechin differ in the configuration of the hydroxyl group at the 3rd carbon atom:

Catechins and leukoanthocyanidins usually do not form glycosylated forms. In plants, they exist as monomers or as condensed compounds (tannins).

Catechins are the most reduced flavonoid compounds, colorless compounds that are easily oxidized, as a result of which they acquire different colors (for example, tea, the different color of which / black, red, yellow / is due to the degree of oxidation of catechins).

Leukoanthocyanidins – (flavan-3,4-diols) are colorless, these are labile compounds that easily oxidize to the corresponding anthocyanidins when heated with acids and thus become colored substances.

Many red and blue colors of flowers with different shades are due to the presence of anthocyanidins.

A feature of the structure of anthocyanidins is the presence of free valence of oxygen in the pyran ring. Due to the positive charge, anthocyanidins in an acidic solution behave like cations and form salts with acids, in an alkaline solution they behave like anions and form salts with bases. Depending on the pH of the medium, the color of anthocyanidins changes.

The color of the flowers changes depending on the pH of the medium. In an acidic environment, they form a pink, red color, in an alkaline environment - from blue to blue with different shades.

Anthocyanidins - present in plants in the form of glycosides (anthocyanins), giving plant tissues a variety of colors - from pink to black-violet. The color of anthocyanins is explained by the peculiarities of their structure - the number and location of hydroxyl and methoxyl groups and the ability to form complexes with metal ions.

There are compounds with seven hydroxyl groups. Methylation of hydroxyls further enhances the variety of shades.

Flavanones - a small group of flavonoids, the structure of which is based on the dihydro-gamma-pyrone ring.

Flavanones (hydrogenated derivative of flavone), unlike flavone, do not have a double bond between carbons in the 2nd and 3rd positions.

In the presence of alkalis, the ring opens and chalcones are formed. In an acidic environment, chalcones are converted to flavanones.

For example, naringenin (flavanone) and naringenin (chalcone) are found in immortelle inflorescences in a free state and as a 5-monoglucoside.

Naringenin Halcon Naringenin

The derivatives of liquiditigenin (flavanone) and isoliquiritigenin (chalcone) include a glycoside liquiditin (found in the root of licorice and gives it a yellow color)

Liquiritigenin Chalcon Isoliquiritigenin

Representative flavanone is an hesperetin (found as a glycoside in citrus fruits - lemons)

Flavanones are optically active substances that are usually found in plants in the form of levorotatory forms.

More than 30 representatives of this group of flavonoids (aglycones) are known, which are usually found together with chalcones in plants of the families: Rosaceae, legumes, asteras.

Flavanonols (dihydroflavonols) differ from flavanones by the presence

- OH groups at C-3 and, like catechins, contain two asymmetric carbon atoms in the molecule (C-2 and C-3).

They are very labile and therefore do not accumulate in plants in large quantities.

Natural dihydroflavonones corresponding to the flavonols kaempferol and quercetin are called aromadendrin and taxifolin:

Most dihydroflavonols are isolated from coniferous (pine, spruce, larch) and deciduous (eucalyptus, beech, cherry) species.

A special group of flavonoids is made up of compounds with a five-membered heterocyclic ring, the so-called aurons,

these are derivatives of 2-benzylidene coumaranone or 2-benzfuranone:

It is believed that aurones can be formed from the corresponding chalcones under the action of an enzyme found in plants - chalconase.

They are rarely found in plants, for example, in the family of Asteraceae, legumes, norichnikovs.

In plants, they are present in the form of glycosides. These are yellow, orange or orange-red plant pigments.

Flavonoid biosynthesis

well studied. A great contribution to the study of biosynthesis was made by such scientists as the American scientist G. Grisebach, the Canadian scientist E. Underhill, the Russian scientist professor at the Institute of Plant Physiology.

It was found that biosynthesis follows a mixed path.

Nucleus A is formed via the acetate-malonate pathway, ring B - via shikimic acid.

Shikimic acid Prefenic acid Tyrosine

Formed by glycolytic breakdown of sugars shikimic acid with the participation of ATP, it sequentially passes through a number of intermediate compounds and turns into prefenic acid.

Prefenic acid is a key intermediate in the biosynthesis of not only flavonoids, but also coumarins, aromatic amino acids and other phenolic compounds.

It is able to transform into a variety of products, such as education p-coumaric acid.

First, prefenic acid is aminated with its simultaneous decarboxylation.

Formed tyrosine, deamination of which leads to p-kumarova acid, the formula of which can be written in two ways, and the second designation clearly shows ring B, or rather, the structural fragment -C3-C6.

Formation of ring A and flavonoid (chalcone)

Triacetic acid p-coumaric acid

Intermediate Halcon

Acetic acid (acetyl-Co A) polymerizes in triacetic acid that reacts with p-kumarova acid.

As a result of their condensation, circuit closure and enolization, chalcon.

Chalcon is considered the predecessor of all other groups of flavonoids:

When chalcones are oxidized, flavones, flavonols,

and upon recovery - anthocyanidins, catechins, leukoanthocyanidins.

Physiochemical properties.

Pure flavonoids are crystalline compounds,

colorless (isoflavones, catechins, leukoanthocyanidins, flavanonols, flavanones),

yellow (flavones, flavonols, chalcones, aurones),

and also colored red, blue or purple (anthocyanidins). Odorless, bitter taste, with a certain melting point (glycosides 100-180 ° C, aglycones up to 300 ° C).

Depending on the pH of the medium. In an acidic environment, they have shades of red or pink in an alkaline environment - blue.

Glycosides, catechins, and leukoanthocyanidins are readily soluble in water, ethanol, and methanol of various concentrations, but insoluble in polar organic solvents.

Aglycones, with the exception of catechins and leukoanthocyanidins, dissolve in ethyl ether, acetone, ethyl acetate, alcohols, and are practically insoluble in water.

Flavonoid aglycones and glycosides are odorless

Some of them taste bitter.

Flavonoid glycosides have optical activity and are capable of acidic and enzymatic hydrolysis.

The rate of hydrolysis and the conditions for its implementation are different for different groups of flavonoids.

O-glycosides under the action of dilute mineral acids and enzymes are hydrolyzed to aglycone and a carbohydrate residue.

C-glycosides are broken down with difficulty only under the action of strong acids (concentrated hydrochloric or acetic - a mixture of Kiliani) with prolonged heating.

Catechins and leukoanthocyanidins are easily oxidized in the presence of atmospheric oxygen, under the action of light and alkalis, turning into colored compounds - condensation products, up to high molecular weight polymeric forms.

When heated to a temperature of 200 ° C, these compounds sublime, and at a higher temperature they are destroyed.

Selection and identification methods.

To isolate flavonoids, extraction plant material with ethanol or methanol, taking into account the solubility of aglycones and glycosides of flavonoids in alcohol.

The alcoholic extract is evaporated, hot water is added to the residue, and after cooling, non-polar compounds (chlorophyll, fatty and essential oils) are removed, since upon cooling, they precipitate, which is separated.

Often for branch of related substances, the raw material is first treated with chloroform, ie, "defatted", and then extracted with alcohol of various concentrations. The alcoholic extract is investigated.

Qualitative and quantitative analysis is carried out.

Flavonoids from the aqueous phase retrieve successively ethyl ether (aglycones), ethyl acetate (mainly monosides) and butanol (biosides, triosides).

To separate components column chromatography on silica gel, polyamide sorbent or cellulose is used for each fraction.

Elution of substances is carried out with a mixture of chloroform with methyl alcohol with an increasing concentration of methyl alcohol, alcohol-water mixtures with an increasing concentration of alcohol, if the sorbent is polyamide, or 5-30% acetic acid in the case of cellulose.

To highlight specific methods exist for individual flavonoids.

So, for excretion routine Japanese sophora buds are extracted with hot water. When the aqueous extracts are cooled, rutin precipitates, it is filtered off and purified by recrystallization from alcohol.

For flavonoid identification use their physical and chemical properties:

- determination of the melting point

- determination of the specific rotation of glycosides

- comparison of UV, IR, mass, PMR spectra with the spectra of known samples.

The UV spectrum of flavonoids is characterized by the presence, as a rule, of two absorption maxima. UV spectroscopy is successfully used to identify free OH groups in a flavonoid molecule by adding various reagents (sodium acetate, sodium methoxide, boric acid with sodium acetate, aluminum chloride).

When these reagents are added, the absorption maxima shift, which is characteristic of hydroxyl groups in different positions.

The IR spectrum of flavonoids contains absorption bands characteristic of various groups.

Qualitative definition.

There are no specific reactions for all groups of flavonoids.

The following reactions are often used:

1. A typical reaction to flavonoids is Cyanidin test or

test of the Synod (Chinoda test) (based on their reduction with atomic hydrogen in an acidic medium in the presence of magnesium or zinc).

Flavonoids, when reduced with magnesium or zinc in the presence of concentrated hydrochloric acid, form a red color due to the formation of anthocyanidins:

The reaction is very sensitive, based on the reduction of the carbonyl group and the formation of anthocyanide.

Chalcones and aurones are not detected by the cyanidin reaction, but when conc. HCl (no magnesium) forms a red color due to the formation of oxonium salts.

5-hydroxyflavones and 5-hydroxyflavonols interact with boric acid in the presence of citric (or oxalic), forming a bright yellow coloration with yellow-green fluorescence (formation of a bathochromic complex):

3. Reaction with antimony trichloride.

5-hydroxyflavones and 5-hydroxyflavonols interact with antimony trichloride to form yellow or red complex compounds:

4.With a solution of ammonia, alkali, flavones, flavanones, flavonols, flavanonols give a yellow color, when heated, turning into orange or red

chalcones and aurones immediately give a red or purple coloration.

Pure catechins do not give color, however, the presence of even a small amount of impurities (oxidation products) causes the appearance of a yellow color.

Anthocyanins in the presence of ammonia or sodium carbonate give a blue or violet color.

5.With 1% vanillin solution in conc. HCl form a red-raspberry color of catechins (derivatives of phloroglucinol and resorcinol).

6. Flavones, chalcones, aurones containing free ortho-hydroxyl groups in ring B, when treating alcohol solutions with medium

with lead acid form precipitates colored in bright yellow and red.

Anthocyanins form precipitates that are colored both red and blue.

7. With 1-2% alcoholic solution of AlCl3, yellow-green coloration indicates the presence of flavonoids.

Chromatographic analysis methods.

With the aim of detecting flavonoids in plant material,

used by chromatography on paper and in a thin layer of sorbent.

The detection of components in the chromatogram is carried out by viewing them in UV light.

In this case, flavones, flavonol-3-glycosides, flavanones, chalcones and their 7-glycosides - in the form of yellow or yellow-green spots; flavonols and their 7-glycosides - in the form of yellow or yellow-green spots of xanthones in the form of orange spots.

Isoflavones do not appear in this case.

After viewing in UV light, chromatograms can be processed with one of the reagents:

1) 5% alcoholic solution of AlCl3 followed by heating at 105 ° C for 3-5 minutes (bright yellow color of the spot in visible light and bright yellow-green fluorescence in UV light)

2) with 5% SbCl3 in carbon tetrachloride (Martini-Bettolo reagent) Yellow or yellow-orange color indicates the presence of flavones, flavonols, flavanones and isoflavones red or red-violet - chalcones.

3) with 2% alcoholic solution of alkali

4) when the stain is treated with ammonia vapor, blue fluorescence (isoflavonoids) is enhanced

which allows to obtain areas with brighter fluorescence in UV light.

Wilson's reagent (solution of boric and b / in citric acid in b / in methanol)

5) Azo coupling reaction - for the presence of 7-hydroxyflavanols, 7-hydroxyisoflavanols.

Quantitation.

In recent years, various are becoming more widespread:

1. physicochemical methods analysis, which have a number of significant advantages in comparison, for example, with gravimetric and titrimetric methods, namely, the speed and accuracy of determination, the detection of even small amounts and, which is especially important, the ability to isolate individual flavonoids from plant materials.

These methods include photoelectric colorimetry, spectrophotometry, densitometry using chromatography on paper and in a thin layer of sorbent.

The essence of chromatodensitometric the method consists in the isolation and separation of flavonoids with a direct quantitative densitometric assessment of the colored zone in the chromatogram.

The method has advantages in the speed of the analysis and the accuracy of the determination, since in this case the elution stage is excluded.

Photo colorimetric method is usedbased on measuring the optical density of colored solutions obtained in color reactions of flavonoids with salts of various metals (aluminum, zirconium, titanium, chromium, antimony), with a citric-boric reagent and on the reduction reaction with zinc or magnesium in an acidic medium.

Known color reaction flavonoids with nitric acid and uranyl acetic acid, which allows the quantitative determination of rutin in mixtures with quercitin.

Currently, the spectrophotometric method is widely used.

Held in phase of greatest accumulation flavonoids:

- budding: buds of Japanese Sophora, succession grass

- the beginning of flowering: sandy immortelle flowers, tansy, motherwort grass

- mass flowering: blue cornflower flowers, St.

- vegetation: horsetail herb, Chinese tea leaves

- fruiting: fruits of hawthorn, chokeberry, Japanese sophora

- in the fall, the roots of the Stelnik and Scutellaria Baikal

- Licorice roots can be harvested all year round.

In the flowering phase they collect flowers of blue cornflower, tansy, immortelle, grass of the creeper, mountaineers, motherwort.

- The peculiarity of collecting dried creeper is pulling out the plant by the root.

- Motherwort is harvested when the lower flowers are in bloom. In the phase of full bloom, "overripe" occurs, the calyx hardens and becomes prickly, and the raw material is considered to be of poor quality.

- The herb is harvested during the budding period. After flowering, fruits are formed - achenes with thorny awns.

- The collection of wild-growing raw materials is done manually using knives, scissors and sickles.

- Small mechanization is used to collect cultivated plants (immortelle flowers, hawthorn fruits).

Since flavonoids are contained in raw materials mainly in the form of glycosides, the raw materials are dried in dryers with artificial and natural heating. Fruits are dried at a temperature of 70-90 ° C, grass - 50-60 ° C, flowers - 40 ° C. Drying in the sun is not allowed.

The raw materials must be protected from moisture and direct sunlight. Store in a tightly sealed container, in a well-ventilated area according to the general list.

Ways of using raw materials containing flavonoids.

Most of the raw materials containing flavonoids are approved for sale without a doctor's prescription by order No. 000 of 07.19.99

Extemporaneous formulation MP is used in the form of infusions, decoctions and fees. In pharmaceutical factoriesextract preparations are obtained:

- tinctures: motherwort, St. John's wort, Baikal skullcap, hawthorn, water pepper

- liquid extracts of hawthorn, water pepper

- dry extract of immortelle flowers, motherwort herb.

Chemical and pharmaceutical plants produce:

- "Rutin" and "Quercetin" from the buds of Japanese Sophora

- "Flacarbin" and "Liquiriton" from licorice roots

- "Novoimanin" from St. John's wort

- "Tanacehol" from tansy flowers

- "Flamin" from immortelle flowers, etc.

Every year the range of drugs is replenished due to the development of new FPP.

The plants for the processing of medicinal plant raw materials produce raw materials in cut-pressed form, in the form of briquettes and fees.

Medical use of raw materials and preparations containing flavonoids.

Flavonoids have a wide range of pharmacological actions:

1. P-vitamin activity.

Flavonoids reduce the fragility of capillaries and the permeability of the walls of blood vessels, enhance the effect of ascorbic acid.

P-vitamin activity is possessed by:

- citrus exocarp flavanonones

- flavonols - rutin, quercetin from Japanese Sophora buds, hyperoside from St. John's wort

- fresh juice and pulp of chokeberry fruits.

2. Diuretic activity:

- with edema of renal and cardiac origin, an infusion of blue cornflower flowers, string herb, violets, tincture of steel is prescribed

- for edema of cardiac origin due to insufficient blood circulation, an infusion of horsetail herb is used

- for urolithiasis, an infusion of Knotweed herb is used,

- "Marelin", which contains horsetail extract.

3. Choleretic activity. For cholecystitis, biliary dyskinesia, cholelithiasis and hepatitis, an infusion of immortelle flowers, tansy, tanacehol, dry extract and flamin from flowers is immortal, is used.

Hemostatic action. In case of uterine, hemorrhoidal nosebleeds, preparations from the herb of mountaineer and kidney are used, tincture of steel. Antihypertensive and sedative effect. Preparations of motherwort herb, chokeberry, marsh creeper (especially in the initial stage of hypertension), woolly astragalus, Baikal skullcap. Cardiotonic action. Preparations of flowers and fruits of hawthorn for functional disorders of cardiac activity, palpitations, arrhythmias, tachycardia. Antiulcer action:

- "Likviriton" and "Flakarbin" have anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic and antisecretory effects in gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer

- marsh creeper grass in combination with rhizomes with blue cyanosis roots in the form of tablets.

8. Wound healing and antimicrobial action (for the treatment of purulent wounds, boils, bedsores):

- tincture of Japanese Sophora fruit

- oil extract from the herb of marsh creeper.

Due to the content of essential oils, tansy flowers are used as

antihelminthic remedy for ascariasis.

Burrow herb is widely used in children's practice as antiallergic remedy for diathesis in the form of infusion inside and outside in the form of baths and lotions.

Violet herb infusion is used as expectorant, it enhances the secretion of the bronchial glands.

"Alpizarin" in the form of liniment, ointments and tablets is used as antiviral for the treatment of diseases caused by the herpes virus.

Used when hemorrhoids (plowed steel, horse chestnut)

In recent years, there have been reports of antitumor action flavonoids.

However, there are still few preparations containing pure flavonoids. Most often, these compounds are found in plants in combination with other biologically active substances and are used in total.

Raw material base of plants containing flavonoids.

Procurement of medicinal plant materials is carried out from wild and cultivated species.

The raw material base, provided with natural reserves, has:.

- common tansy, grows throughout the forest and forest-steppe zone of the European part and Western Siberia in meadows, weedy places, near dwellings, in clearings, along roads

- marsh dryweed, grows throughout the European part, in Siberia, in the Far East in forest and forest-steppe zones in fields, vegetable gardens, along roads, but on the banks of rivers, reservoirs, the outskirts of peat bogs

- St. John's wort and spotted - are widespread in the forest in the forest-steppe zones of the European part, Western and Eastern Siberia, in the Caucasus. Prefers dry meadows, forest glades and forest edges

- violet tricolor and field are found throughout the European part and Siberia in meadows, forest edges, like weeds in gardens and fields. Throughout Russia, as weeds are found:

- horsetail in meadows, fields, vegetable gardens, along the banks of rivers, ditches, near roads,

- blue cornflower in crops of grain crops, on fallow lands, deposits

- peppery mountaineers and pochuyny in damp meadows, along ditches, river banks, the outskirts of swamps, near roads

- bird highlander along roads, ditches, in pastures, fields, vegetable gardens, in wastelands.

Wild and cultivated:

- motherwort five-bladed, grows throughout the European part, in the south of Western Siberia in wastelands, along roads, in fallow lands, in pasture, less often in forest glades and forest edges. Cultivated in specialized state farms

- sandy immortelle forms thickets in the steppe and forest-steppe zones

European part and Western Siberia on sandy soils, dry pastures, in young pine plantations. Cultivated in Ukraine and Belarus and in some adjacent regions of Russia

- a series of three-part grows throughout the European part, in Siberia and the Far East along the banks of rivers, reservoirs, the outskirts of swamps, in ditches, as weed in vegetable gardens. Cultivated in the Krasnodar Territory

- hawthorns are found throughout Russia in the forest and forest-steppe zone in sparse forests, along the edges and banks of rivers. Widely cultivated

- steel field grows in the south of the European part in meadows, forest edges and glades, along river banks and roadsides. Cultivated in the Krasnoyarsk Territory

Cultivated plants only:

- Rowan black-fruited throughout the country as a medicinal and fruit plant

- Japanese sophora in the south of the European part of the Krasnodar Territory), in the Caucasus, and Ukraine, in Central Asia

- Chinese tea in the North Caucasus (Krasnodar Territory) and in Georgia.

Works on the study of flavonoids.

The study of flavonoids dates back to the early 19th century, when in 1814 Chevrolet isolated from the bark of a special type of oak a crystalline substance called quercetrin.

40 years later Rigand established the glycosidic nature of this substance and called the aglycone quercetin.

In 1903 g. Valyashko established the structure of the routine

A systematic study of the structure of natural flavonoids has been carried out by Polish chemists for many years.

Great work on the study of anthocyanins conducted by Willstatter.

Studies of catechins were carried out ,, K. Freudenberg.

Interest in flavonoid compounds especially increased in the 40s of the last century; flavonoids attract the attention of scientists for their versatile biological activity and extremely low toxicity.

Since 1970, more than 1500 flavonoid compounds have been isolated.

A promising direction is the search for biologically active compounds of the xanthone group - structurally similar to flavonoids.


Deciduous trees for alkaline soils

Ailant the highest or Chinese ash - Ailanthus altissima

A tree 20-25 m high, with a slender cylindrical trunk covered with thin light gray bark, young trees with a wide-pyramidal crown, old trees with a tent-like spreading crown. The crown is semi-shaded. Leaves are compound, pinnate, palm-shaped (like in pinnate palms), very large, up to 60 cm long, and in coppice specimens even up to 1 m. Leaves of 13-25 leaflets, ovate-lanceolate, glabrous, glaucous below, 7-12 cm, with 2-4 large obtuse teeth at the base when touched, the leaves emit an unpleasant odor.

The flowers are bisexual and staminate (male), small, yellowish-green in large panicles, 10-20 cm long. Male flowers have an unpleasant odor. Fruits are light reddish-brown lionfish 3-4 cm long.

It is light-loving to soil conditions, unpretentious, grows on dry stony, crushed stone and sandy soils, tolerates rather significant soil salinity, grows well even on saline soils, but develops best on deep loamy, fairly moist soils.

Field Maple - Acer campestre

The tree is 12-15 meters high. The crown is oval, dense, Leaves are five-lobed, less often three-lobed. Very shade-tolerant. Relatively drought-resistant, picky about the richness of the soil.

Aylant the highest Field maple

Ash-leaved maple - Acer negundo

The tree is 10-15 (18) meters high. In landscaping, decorative forms are often used:

- 'Odessanum' - a tree up to 9 m high with beautiful bright, lemon-yellow foliage. Leaf petioles are orange-yellowish.

- 'Elegantissima' - more often a shrub form (about 5 m tall), young leaves with a bright yellow border, brightening with age.

- 'Flamingo' - more often in a standard form, about 5 m high. Leaves are covered with spots of white-pink color. When blooming, they have a creamy green color, then pale pink-white stripes and a wide border of the same color appear on them, later pink turns into white or pale green.

- 'Variegatum' ('Argenteo-variegatum') - a tree or shrub 5-7 m high. The leaves have an irregular wide strip of cream color along the edge, pink when blooming.

Norway maple - Acer platanoides

A tree with a height of 18-25 m.In landscaping, both the species and its numerous varieties are used:

- 'Crimson King' (synonym for 'Schwedleri Nigrum'). The tree reaches 20 m in height. The leaves have a deep purple, almost black color throughout the season.

- 'Drummondii'. The tree is up to 6-10 m (sometimes up to 12 m) in height. Leaves with a wide, irregular strip of cream color.

- 'Globosum' a small tree, more often in the standard form 4-6 (7) m high, 3-5 m wide, initially strictly spherical, later gradually the crown becomes flattened.

Ash-leaved maple 'Variegatum' Norway maple

Gleditsia prickly (three-prickly, ordinary) - Gleditsia triacanthos

Trees 8-15 (20) m tall. They have an openwork crown, feathery leaves and beautiful fruits - beans. Very dry resistant.

Catalpa bignonioidny, or ordinary - Catalpa bignonioides

Tree up to 20 m tall. The crown is broadly oval, the leaves are large. Beautiful, profuse flowering.

Gledicia prickly Catalpa bignoniform

Cercis podnose (European), or "Judas tree" - Cercis siliquastrum. Grows in the form of a tree (sometimes a shrub), up to 10 m tall, with a spreading, loose crown. It blooms beautifully in May, during flowering, all branches are completely covered with bunches of purple-pink flowers.

Hawthorn prickly (common) - Crataegus oxyacantha (laevigata). A large shrub up to 4 m high or a tree up to 5 m, with a dense, oval crown and thorny branches. The leaves are broadly ovate with 3-5 lobes. White flowers, 5-10 in scutes. Duration of flowering is 10-12 days. Rounded fruits up to 1.2 cm in diameter, bright red to purple in color, with yellow flesh.

You can also use other types of hawthorns - Altai, blood-red, softish, rooster's spur, one-footed, etc.

Common ash - Fraxinus excelsior

Tree up to 30 m tall, with a wide-oval, openwork crown. It grows quickly, light-requiring. Has many forms used in landscaping. The most interesting of them:

- weeping (f. pendula) - a tree up to 8 m tall, with a dome-shaped crown and long branches hanging down to the ground, very effective in a single planting

- yellow-leaved (f. aurea) - with yellow leaves, etc.

White mulberry, or mulberry - Morus alba

The tree is up to 20 m tall, in unfavorable conditions - a shrub. The crown is dense, spherical, spreading in old trees. Leaves, of various configurations and sizes, even on one tree, from whole to lobed, in summer they are dark green, in autumn they are straw-yellow. Quite decorative stems are sweet, edible, of various colors. It has many decorative forms, of which the most effective are:

- weeping (f. pendula) - up to 5 m high, with thin branches drooping to the ground

-dissected (f. skeletoniana) - very graceful, with leaves divided into regular, narrow lobes, while the apical and two lateral lobes have strongly elongated ends

- golden (f. aurea) - with golden yellow young shoots and leaves.

Oriental plane tree or Chinar - Platanus orientalis

A powerful tree up to 30-40 (50) m in height, has a powerful, wide-round, cylindrical, domed or spherical crown. Usually a single-stemmed tree, less often with several trunks with a common base. The bark is very original, on the branches it is smooth, greenish-gray on young trunks, gray, exfoliating in large plates on old ones - dark gray, with deep cracks. The leaves are large (15 - 18 cm), alternate, palmate-lobed. It grows quickly, withstands a drop in temperature to -25 ° C,

Poplar black or Carp - Populus nigra

A large tree, up to 30 m high, with a powerful, wide, branched crown. Leaves are rhombic or triangular, with a long thin tip at the top, dark green above and somewhat lighter below, finely obtuse-toothed along the edge, fragrant. It is undemanding to soil conditions, it can grow on dry and relatively poor soils. It grows very quickly on the rich and humid. Winter-hardy and drought-resistant. Gas and smoke resistant.

The presence of lime in the soil is also tolerated: Poplar Simon, or Chinese - P. simonii. Bolle poplar - R. bolleana Pyramidal poplar - R. pyramidalis.

Sumac fluffy or deer-horned (Vinegar tree) - Rhus typhina (Rhus hirta)

A tree 10-12 m high or a large shrub. Has a beautiful, decorative, openwork crown, thick, fluffy, light brown shoots, reminiscent of deer antlers. Large, up to 50 cm long, odd-pinnate leaves with an amazing velvety surface, consist of 11-31 leaves, long-pointed at the top and roughly toothed along the edge, dull dark green above, whitish-gray below. In autumn, the leaves are pale orange to deep burgundy tones. During the period of fruit ripening, globular drupes, covered with red bristly pubescence, adorn plants very much, often until spring.

Japanese Sophora - Sophora japonica

Slender, deciduous tree up to 25 m tall, with a beautiful, dense, spherical crown up to 20 m in diameter. The leaves are large, up to 25 cm long, odd-pinnate, consisting of 7-17 ovate or lanceolate-oblong leaves, dense, dark green, glossy above and bluish below. Flowers are yellowish or greenish white, in large paniculate inflorescences. Pods up to 10 cm, clearly visible, sharply tied, amber-yellow when ripe. Photophilous. Very drought-resistant, undemanding to soil, resistant to smoke and gases.

Sumac fluffy Sophora Japanese

Downy oak - Quercus pubescens

The tree is up to 8-10 m high, with a low, winding trunk and a wide crown, sometimes growing as a shrub. Young shoots are strongly pubescent. Leaves 5-10 cm long, very variable in shape and size, with 4-8 pairs of obtuse or pointed lobes, dark green above, glabrous, gray-green below, pubescent. It grows slowly, light and heat-loving, dry-resistant.

English oak - Quercus robur

A long-lasting, very powerful tree up to 50 m tall, with single plantings in open places - with a short trunk and a wide, spreading, low-planted crown. The leaves are alternate, leathery, oblong, obovate, up to 15 cm long, with an elongated apex and 3-7 pairs of obtuse, lateral lobes of unequal length. Acorns up to 3.5 cm, 1/5 covered with plush, ripen in early autumn. Despite the fact that it prefers deep, fertile, fresh soils, it is capable of developing on any, including dry and saline ones. Possesses high drought and heat resistance. One of the most durable Ukrainian aboriginal breeds. These characteristics make it indispensable in green building.

Robinia pseudoacacia or White Acacia - Robinia pseudoacacia

Deciduous tree up to 30 m tall, with a translucent, spreading, openwork crown, consisting of separate tiers. Shoots are glabrous, greenish-gray or red-brown, prickly. Leaves are alternate, pinnate, 7-19 leaflets obovate or elliptical.In the spring they are green, silky-pubescent, in the summer they are dark green, sometimes yellowish, glaucous below, naked in the fall - dark green. Flowers are white or slightly pinkish, fragrant, in drooping racemes up to 20 cm long. The fruit is a brown, flat, linear-oblong pod 5-12 cm long. White acacia has a wide variety of decorative forms. Most often, the following are used in landscaping: pyramidal (f. Stricta), umbrella (f. Umbraculifera), golden (f. Aurea), dissected (f. Dissecta).

Willow pear - Pyrus salicifolia

Low tree up to 8-10 m, wide ovate crown. Young shoots with white-felt drooping. The leaves are narrow-lanceolate up to 8 cm, with a width of 1 cm, young ones are silvery, later slightly shiny, dark green above and whitish-fluffy below. Flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, white, collected in corymbose inflorescences. Fruits are small, up to 2 cm, with a short peduncle. Drought-resistant, undemanding to the soil, even tolerates salinity and compaction. Smoke and gas resistant.

Lochium pear - Pyrus elaeagnifolia

The tree is up to 10 m tall. The crown is wide, openwork, with thorny, tomentose-pubescent shoots. Lanceolate leaves up to 9 cm long, silvery on both sides, gray-tomentose, very reminiscent of the leaves of the sucker, for which the species got its name. The flowers are white with a pink tint, up to 2.5 cm in diameter, very effective at the time of flowering against the background of silvery leaves. Fruits up to 2 cm in diameter. The plant is not demanding on the richness of the soil, it can grow on stony, marginal soils, it is drought-resistant, light-requiring. Winter hardiness is quite high, withstands a drop in temperature to -20-25 ° C.

Pinnately-branched elm or Karagach (Birch) pinnately-branched - Ulmus pinnato-ramosa

A tree up to 15 m tall, with an openwork crown, spreading in youth and oval in adult trees with thin, flexible, grayish-pubescent, drooping branches. Leaves are elliptical, small, smooth, sometimes symmetrical, coarsely toothed, dark green, yellowing in autumn. Flowers and lionfish are small, in bunches. Photophilous, drought-resistant.

Squat or small-leaved elm - Ulmus pumila

A small tree up to 15 m tall, or a shrub with a dense, rounded crown and thin branches. Young shoots are pubescent. Small elliptical leaves up to 2-7 cm long, leathery, slightly unequal, with a sharp short top and a simple or double-toothed edge, smooth, pubescent in youth. In spring, the leaves are green, the bottom is lighter in summer - dark green in autumn - olive yellow. Flowers are collected in small bunches. Lionfish are yellow-brown or buffy. Photophilous, drought-resistant, tolerates city conditions well.

Rekovets Petr, dendrologist,
Chairman of the Board
Kiev Landscape Club

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